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Title: Evaluation of Sampling Tools for Environmental Sampling of Bacterial Endospores from Porous and Non-porous Surfaces

Abstract

Aims: Having and executing a well-defined and validated sampling protocol is critical following a purposeful release of a biological agent for response and recovery activities, for clinical and epidemiological analysis and for forensic purposes. The objective of this study was to address the need for validated sampling and analysis methods called out by the General Accounting Office and others to systematically compare the collection efficiency of various swabs and wipes for collection of bacterial endospores from five different surfaces, both porous and non-porous. This study was also designed to test the collection and extraction solutions used for endospore recovery from swabs and wipes. Methods and Results: Eight collection tools were used, five swabs and three wipes. Three collection/preservation solutions were evaluated: sterile E-pure® water, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and phosphate buffered saline with 0.3% Tween (PBST). An Ink Jet Aerosol Generator (IJAG) was used to apply Bacillus subtilis endospores to five porous and non-porous surfaces. The collection efficiencies of the swabs and wipes were compared using a statistical multiple comparison analysis. Results indicated that wipes tend to have higher collection efficiency than swabs. Of the swabs tested, the recovery from most of the surfaces was highest with the polyurethane foammore » swab. Conclusions: The ScottPure® wipe had the highest collection efficiency and PBST was the best collection solution of those tested. Significance and Impact of Study: Validated sampling for potential biological warfare is of significant importance and this study answered some relevant questions.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
948405
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-60777
Journal ID: ISSN 1364-5072; JAMIFK; TRN: US200906%%329
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Microbiology, 105 (4):1107-1113; Journal Volume: 105; Journal Issue: 4
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE; AEROSOL GENERATORS; BACILLUS SUBTILIS; BIOLOGICAL WARFARE; EFFICIENCY; EVALUATION; PHOSPHATES; POLYURETHANES; SAMPLING; US GAO; WATER

Citation Formats

Valentine, Nancy B., Butcher, Mark G., Su, Yin-Fong, Jarman, Kristin H., Matzke, Melissa M., Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M., Panisko, Ellen A., Seiders, Barbara AB, and Wahl, Karen L. Evaluation of Sampling Tools for Environmental Sampling of Bacterial Endospores from Porous and Non-porous Surfaces. United States: N. p., 2008. Web. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2008.03840.x.
Valentine, Nancy B., Butcher, Mark G., Su, Yin-Fong, Jarman, Kristin H., Matzke, Melissa M., Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M., Panisko, Ellen A., Seiders, Barbara AB, & Wahl, Karen L. Evaluation of Sampling Tools for Environmental Sampling of Bacterial Endospores from Porous and Non-porous Surfaces. United States. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2008.03840.x.
Valentine, Nancy B., Butcher, Mark G., Su, Yin-Fong, Jarman, Kristin H., Matzke, Melissa M., Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M., Panisko, Ellen A., Seiders, Barbara AB, and Wahl, Karen L. Sat . "Evaluation of Sampling Tools for Environmental Sampling of Bacterial Endospores from Porous and Non-porous Surfaces". United States. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2008.03840.x.
@article{osti_948405,
title = {Evaluation of Sampling Tools for Environmental Sampling of Bacterial Endospores from Porous and Non-porous Surfaces},
author = {Valentine, Nancy B. and Butcher, Mark G. and Su, Yin-Fong and Jarman, Kristin H. and Matzke, Melissa M. and Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M. and Panisko, Ellen A. and Seiders, Barbara AB and Wahl, Karen L.},
abstractNote = {Aims: Having and executing a well-defined and validated sampling protocol is critical following a purposeful release of a biological agent for response and recovery activities, for clinical and epidemiological analysis and for forensic purposes. The objective of this study was to address the need for validated sampling and analysis methods called out by the General Accounting Office and others to systematically compare the collection efficiency of various swabs and wipes for collection of bacterial endospores from five different surfaces, both porous and non-porous. This study was also designed to test the collection and extraction solutions used for endospore recovery from swabs and wipes. Methods and Results: Eight collection tools were used, five swabs and three wipes. Three collection/preservation solutions were evaluated: sterile E-pure® water, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and phosphate buffered saline with 0.3% Tween (PBST). An Ink Jet Aerosol Generator (IJAG) was used to apply Bacillus subtilis endospores to five porous and non-porous surfaces. The collection efficiencies of the swabs and wipes were compared using a statistical multiple comparison analysis. Results indicated that wipes tend to have higher collection efficiency than swabs. Of the swabs tested, the recovery from most of the surfaces was highest with the polyurethane foam swab. Conclusions: The ScottPure® wipe had the highest collection efficiency and PBST was the best collection solution of those tested. Significance and Impact of Study: Validated sampling for potential biological warfare is of significant importance and this study answered some relevant questions.},
doi = {10.1111/j.1365-2672.2008.03840.x},
journal = {Journal of Applied Microbiology, 105 (4):1107-1113},
number = 4,
volume = 105,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Mar 08 00:00:00 EST 2008},
month = {Sat Mar 08 00:00:00 EST 2008}
}
  • Previous work using infrared spectroscopy has shown potential for rapid discrimination between bacteria in either their sporulated or vegetative states, as well as between bacteria and other common interferents. For species within one physiological state, however, distinction is far more challenging, and requires chemometrics. In the current study, we have narrowed the field of study by eliminating the confounding issues of vegetative cells as well as growth media and focused on using IR spectra to distinguish between different species all in the sporulated state. Using principal component analysis (PCA) and a classification method based upon similarity measurements, we demonstrate amore » successful identification rate to the species level of 85% for Bacillus spores grown and sporulated in a glucose broth medium.« less
  • Argon plasma jets penetrate deep into ambient air and create a path for oxygen radicals to sterilize microbes. A sterilization experiment with bacterial endospores indicates that an argon-oxygen plasma jet very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372), thereby demonstrating its capability to clean surfaces and its usefulness for reinstating contaminated equipment as free from toxic biological warfare agents. However, the spore-killing efficiency of the atmospheric-pressure argon-oxygen jet depends very sensitively on the oxygen concentration in the argon gas.
  • The factors that control the transport of bacteria through porous media are not well understood. The relative importance of the processes of dispersion, of immobilization of bacterial cells by various mechanisms, and of subsequent release of these trapped cells in describing transport has not been elucidated experimentally. Moreover, the variability of the phenomenological coefficients used to model these processes, given changes in such primary factors as grain size, organism, and ionic strength of the water, is unknown. The authors report results of fitting solutions of an advection-dispersion equation, modified to account for deposition and entrainments, to breakthrough curves from packedmore » sand columns using two sizes of sand, two ionic strengths of the carrier solution, and two organisms with different sizes. A solution to the advection-dispersion equation including three processes, that is, dispersion, deposition, and entrainment, provides a match to the data that is superior to that achieved by solutions ignoring one of the processes. Fitted values of the coefficient describing deposition vary in a consistent manner with the control variables and are generally within one order of magnitude of those predicted on the basis of theory.« less