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Title: Characterization of minerals and organic phosphorus species in marine sediments using soft X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy.

Abstract

Phosphorus Near Edge X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (P-NEXFS) data were collected on phosphorus containing phases including organic and inorganic compounds and minerals. Although phases containing P in the plus five oxidation state P(V) in a tetrahedral PO{sub 4} structure have similar primary fluorescence peak positions, the size, shape, and positions of secondary spectral features are diagnostic for different compounds and minerals. In particular, calcium phosphates exhibited a notable post-peak shoulder at 2154.5 eV, while oxidized iron phosphates had a distinctive pre-peak feature at 2148 eV. Polyphosphates have a broad secondary peak located approximately 2 eV higher in energy than a similar feature in phosphate esters and diesters. Compounds containing P(V) in structures other than PO{sub 4} tetrahedra such as phosphonates have a primary peak shifted about 1 eV lower than corresponding organo-phosphates. Organo-phosphates with P in the plus three oxidation state P(III) such as phosphines had primary fluorescence peaks shifted still further down in energy (2-3 eV). The substitution of aromatic carbon groups in close proximity to P structures in organic compounds generated both pre- and post-peak features as well as a number of secondary peaks. In addition, X-ray fluorescence mapping of P, Si, Al, Mg, and Na was conducted onmore » a marine sediment sample with sub-micron spatial resolution. Phosphorus was heterogeneously distributed in the sample and not correlated on a broad scale with any other element examined. Much of the P present in the sample was located in small, 0.6-8 {micro}m size, P-rich domains. Several P-rich regions were examined with P-NEXFS using a focused beam with 60 nm resolution and were found to consist of either calcium phosphate or polyphosphate phases. The presence of significant polyphosphate-dominated regions in a marine sediment sample supports the recent observations that such phases can play an important role in marine P cycling. The combination of fluorescence mapping and P-NEXFS data collection on fine particles provides a powerful new tool for environmental phosphorus studies.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Science Foundation (NSF); USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
947545
Report Number(s):
ANL/XSD/JA-63463
Journal ID: ISSN 0304-4203; MRCHBD; TRN: US200905%%12
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Mar. Chem.; Journal Volume: 103; Journal Issue: 2007
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
ENGLISH
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS; MINERALS; ORGANIC PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS; PHOSPHATES; PHOSPHONATES; SEDIMENTS; VALENCE

Citation Formats

Brandes, J. A., Ingall, E., Paterson, D., X-Ray Science Division, Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography, and Georgia Inst. of Tech.. Characterization of minerals and organic phosphorus species in marine sediments using soft X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy.. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2006.09.004.
Brandes, J. A., Ingall, E., Paterson, D., X-Ray Science Division, Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography, & Georgia Inst. of Tech.. Characterization of minerals and organic phosphorus species in marine sediments using soft X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy.. United States. doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2006.09.004.
Brandes, J. A., Ingall, E., Paterson, D., X-Ray Science Division, Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography, and Georgia Inst. of Tech.. Mon . "Characterization of minerals and organic phosphorus species in marine sediments using soft X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy.". United States. doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2006.09.004.
@article{osti_947545,
title = {Characterization of minerals and organic phosphorus species in marine sediments using soft X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy.},
author = {Brandes, J. A. and Ingall, E. and Paterson, D. and X-Ray Science Division and Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography and Georgia Inst. of Tech.},
abstractNote = {Phosphorus Near Edge X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (P-NEXFS) data were collected on phosphorus containing phases including organic and inorganic compounds and minerals. Although phases containing P in the plus five oxidation state P(V) in a tetrahedral PO{sub 4} structure have similar primary fluorescence peak positions, the size, shape, and positions of secondary spectral features are diagnostic for different compounds and minerals. In particular, calcium phosphates exhibited a notable post-peak shoulder at 2154.5 eV, while oxidized iron phosphates had a distinctive pre-peak feature at 2148 eV. Polyphosphates have a broad secondary peak located approximately 2 eV higher in energy than a similar feature in phosphate esters and diesters. Compounds containing P(V) in structures other than PO{sub 4} tetrahedra such as phosphonates have a primary peak shifted about 1 eV lower than corresponding organo-phosphates. Organo-phosphates with P in the plus three oxidation state P(III) such as phosphines had primary fluorescence peaks shifted still further down in energy (2-3 eV). The substitution of aromatic carbon groups in close proximity to P structures in organic compounds generated both pre- and post-peak features as well as a number of secondary peaks. In addition, X-ray fluorescence mapping of P, Si, Al, Mg, and Na was conducted on a marine sediment sample with sub-micron spatial resolution. Phosphorus was heterogeneously distributed in the sample and not correlated on a broad scale with any other element examined. Much of the P present in the sample was located in small, 0.6-8 {micro}m size, P-rich domains. Several P-rich regions were examined with P-NEXFS using a focused beam with 60 nm resolution and were found to consist of either calcium phosphate or polyphosphate phases. The presence of significant polyphosphate-dominated regions in a marine sediment sample supports the recent observations that such phases can play an important role in marine P cycling. The combination of fluorescence mapping and P-NEXFS data collection on fine particles provides a powerful new tool for environmental phosphorus studies.},
doi = {10.1016/j.marchem.2006.09.004},
journal = {Mar. Chem.},
number = 2007,
volume = 103,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Phosphorus Near Edge X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (P-NEXFS) data were collected on phosphorus containing phases including organic and inorganic compounds and minerals. Although phases containing P in the plus five oxidation state P(V) in a tetrahedral PO{sub 4} structure have similar primary fluorescence peak positions, the size, shape, and positions of secondary spectral features are diagnostic for different compounds and minerals. In particular, calcium phosphates exhibited a notable post-peak shoulder at 2154.5 eV, while oxidized iron phosphates had a distinctive pre-peak feature at 2148 eV. Polyphosphates have a broad secondary peak located approximately 2 eV higher in energy than a similarmore » feature in phosphate esters and diesters. Compounds containing P(V) in structures other than PO{sub 4} tetrahedra such as phosphonates have a primary peak shifted about 1 eV lower than corresponding organo-phosphates. Organo-phosphates with P in the plus three oxidation state P(III) such as phosphines had primary fluorescence peaks shifted still further down in energy (2-3 eV). The substitution of aromatic carbon groups in close proximity to P structures in organic compounds generated both pre- and post-peak features as well as a number of secondary peaks. In addition, X-ray fluorescence mapping of P, Si, Al, Mg, and Na was conducted on a marine sediment sample with sub-micron spatial resolution. Phosphorus was heterogeneously distributed in the sample and not correlated on a broad scale with any other element examined. Much of the P present in the sample was located in small, 0.6-8 {mu}m size, P-rich domains. Several P-rich regions were examined with P-NEXFS using a focused beam with 60 nm resolution and were found to consist of either calcium phosphate or polyphosphate phases. The presence of significant polyphosphate-dominated regions in a marine sediment sample supports the recent observations that such phases can play an important role in marine P cycling. The combination of fluorescence mapping and P-NEXFS data collection on fine particles provides a powerful new tool for environmental phosphorus studies.« less
  • X-ray spectromicroscopy (combined X-ray spectroscopy and microscopy) is uniquely capable of determining sub-micron scale elemental content and chemical speciation in minimally-prepared particulate samples. The high spatial resolutions achievable with this technique have enabled the close examination of important microscale processes relevant to the cycling of biogeochemically important elements. Here, we demonstrate the value of X-ray microscopy to environmental and biological research by examining the phosphorus and metal chemistry of complete individual cells from the algal genera Chlamydomonas sp. and Chlorella sp. X-ray analysis revealed that both genera store substantial intracellular phosphorus as distinct, heterogeneously distributed granules whose X-ray fluorescence spectramore » are consistent with that of polyphosphate. Polyphosphate inclusions ranged in size from 0.3-1.4 {micro}m in diameter and exhibited a nonspecies-specific average phosphorus concentration of 6.87 {+-} 1.86 {micro}g cm{sup -2}, which was significantly higher than the average concentration of phosphorus measured in the total cell, at 3.14 {+-} 0.98 {micro}g cm{sup -2} (95% confidence). Polyphosphate was consistently associated with calcium and iron, exhibiting average P:cation molar ratios of 8.31 {+-} 2.00 and 108 {+-} 34, respectively (95% confidence). In some cells, polyphosphate was also associated with potassium, zinc, manganese, and titanium. Based on our results, X-ray spectromicroscopy can provide high-resolution elemental data on minimally prepared, unsectioned cells that are unattainable through alternative microscopic methods and conventional bulk chemical techniques currently available in many fields of marine chemistry.« less
  • The chemical composition of the graphitic black carbon (GBC) fraction of marine organic matter was explored in several marine and freshwater sedimentary environments along the west coast of North America and the Pacific Ocean. Analysis by carbon x-ray absorption near edge structure (C-XANES) spectroscopy and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) show the GBC-fraction of Stillaguamish River surface sediments to be dominated by more highly-ordered and impure forms of graphite, together forming about 80% of the GBC, with a smaller percent of an aliphatic carbon component. Eel River Margin surface sediments had very little highly-ordered graphite, and were instead dominated bymore » amorphous carbon and to a lesser extent, impure graphite. However, the GBC of surface sediments from the Washington State Slope and the Mexico Margin were composed almost solely of amorphous carbon. Pre-anthropogenic, highly-oxidized deep-sea sediments from the open Equatorial Pacific Ocean contained over half their GBC in different forms of graphite as well as highly-aliphatic carbon, low aromatic/highly-acidic aliphatic carbon, low aromatic/highly aliphatic carbon, and amorphous forms of carbon. Our results clearly show the impact of graphite and amorphous C phases in the BC fraction in modern riverine sediments and nearby marine shelf deposits. The pre-anthropogenic Equatorial Pacific GBC fraction is remarkable in the existence of highly-ordered graphite.« less
  • No abstract prepared.