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Title: Unlikely Combination of Experiments with a Novel High-Voltage CIGS Photovoltaic Array

Abstract

A new high-voltage array comprising bipolar strings of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) photovoltaic (PV) modules was inaugurated in 2005. It is equipped with a unique combination of tests, which likely have never before been deployed simultaneously within a single array: full current-voltage (I-V) traces, high-voltage leakage current measurements, and peak-power tracking or temporal stepped-bias profiling. The array nominally produces 1 kW power at 1 sun. The array's electrical characteristics are continuously monitored and controlled with a programmable electronic load interfaced to a data acquisition system (DAS), that also records solar and meteorological data. The modules are mounted with their frames electrically isolated from earth ground, in order to facilitate measurement of the leakage currents that arise between the high voltage bias developed in the series-connected cells and modules and their mounting frames. Because the DAS can perform stepped biasing of the array as a function of time, synchronous detection of the leakage current data with alternating bias is available. Leakage current data and their dependence on temperature and voltage are investigated. Array power data are analyzed across a wide range of varying illuminations and temperatures from the I-V traces. Array performance is also analyzed from an energy output perspectivemore » using peak-power tracking data.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
944466
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-99-GO10337
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: [Proceedings] 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC-4), 7-12 May 2006, Waikoloa, Hawaii; Related Information: For preprint version see NREL/CP-520-39877
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 42 ENGINEERING; COPPER; DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS; DETECTION; ENERGY CONVERSION; GALLIUM; INDIUM; LEAKAGE CURRENT; PEAK LOAD; PERFORMANCE; SUN; Solar Energy - Photovoltaics

Citation Formats

del Cueto, J. A., and Sekulic, B. R. Unlikely Combination of Experiments with a Novel High-Voltage CIGS Photovoltaic Array. United States: N. p., 2006. Web.
del Cueto, J. A., & Sekulic, B. R. Unlikely Combination of Experiments with a Novel High-Voltage CIGS Photovoltaic Array. United States.
del Cueto, J. A., and Sekulic, B. R. Sun . "Unlikely Combination of Experiments with a Novel High-Voltage CIGS Photovoltaic Array". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_944466,
title = {Unlikely Combination of Experiments with a Novel High-Voltage CIGS Photovoltaic Array},
author = {del Cueto, J. A. and Sekulic, B. R.},
abstractNote = {A new high-voltage array comprising bipolar strings of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) photovoltaic (PV) modules was inaugurated in 2005. It is equipped with a unique combination of tests, which likely have never before been deployed simultaneously within a single array: full current-voltage (I-V) traces, high-voltage leakage current measurements, and peak-power tracking or temporal stepped-bias profiling. The array nominally produces 1 kW power at 1 sun. The array's electrical characteristics are continuously monitored and controlled with a programmable electronic load interfaced to a data acquisition system (DAS), that also records solar and meteorological data. The modules are mounted with their frames electrically isolated from earth ground, in order to facilitate measurement of the leakage currents that arise between the high voltage bias developed in the series-connected cells and modules and their mounting frames. Because the DAS can perform stepped biasing of the array as a function of time, synchronous detection of the leakage current data with alternating bias is available. Leakage current data and their dependence on temperature and voltage are investigated. Array power data are analyzed across a wide range of varying illuminations and temperatures from the I-V traces. Array performance is also analyzed from an energy output perspective using peak-power tracking data.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}

Conference:
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  • A new high-voltage array comprising bipolar strings of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) photovoltaic (PV) modules was inaugurated in 2005. It is equipped with a unique combination of tests, which likely have never before been deployed simultaneously within a single array: full current-voltage (I-V) traces, high-voltage leakage current measurements, and peak-power tracking or temporal stepped-bias profiling. The array nominally produces 1 kW power at 1 sun. The array's electrical characteristics are continuously monitored and controlled with a programmable electronic load interfaced to a data acquisition system (DAS), that also records solar and meteorological data. The modules are mounted with theirmore » frames electrically isolated from earth ground, in order to facilitate measurement of the leakage currents that arise between the high voltage bias developed in the series-connected cells and modules and their mounting frames. Because the DAS can perform stepped biasing of the array as a function of time, synchronous detection of the leakage current data with alternating bias is available. Leakage current data and their dependence on temperature and voltage are investigated. Array power data are analyzed across a wide range of varying illuminations and temperatures from the I-V traces. Array performance is also analyzed from an energy output perspective using peak-power tracking data.« less
  • The goals of this study are to: (1) parameterize current-voltage (I-V) performance over a wide range of illumination and temperatures: (a) 50-1150 W/m{sup 2} irradiance, 5-65 C; (b) obtain array temperature coefficients; and (c) quantify energy production; (2) investigate high-voltage leakage currents from the CIS modules in a high-voltage array: determine dependence on moisture, temperature, and voltage bias and ascertain corrosion problems if any; and (3) study long-term power and energy production stability.
  • High voltage operation of photovoltaic power sources in low Earth orbit is limited by the probability of discharged in the array. These discharges are initiated by an interaction between the negative voltage portions of the array (relative to the space plasma potential) and the space plasma environment. Laboratory experiments have been conducted to characterize these discharges. The authors propose a model that suggests experiments conducted to date have measured transients related to the decharging of the solar cell cover glass as a result of a discharge rather than the discharge itself. The excellent agreement between the experiment data and themore » analytical predictions argues for the validity of this model.« less
  • Relatively sputtered ZnO from metal targets enjoys dual advantages of higher deposition rates and lower target costs than RF sputtering from ceramic targets. High deposition rate and conductive, aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) thin-film materials have been fabricated by DC-powered reactive sputtering from a zinc-aluminum metal alloy target. Reliable process control of material properties is exercised by cathode voltage control. Data is presented on the process control and materials properties of the ZnO:Al thin films produced by DC reactive sputtering from metal targets. These materials were incorporated in copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic devices, and have resulted in AM2.5 efficiencies overmore » 10%.« less
  • Arcing to negatively biased, exposed solar cell interconnects on solar arrays placed in plasma environments has been well established in laboratory tests and inferred from space data. Such arcing may cause damaging interference with the operation of electrical power systems in spacecraft planned to be driven with high voltage solar arrays. A simple analytical model has been developed to estimate the effects of negative bias arcs on solar array power system performance. Solar cell characteristics, plasma interactions and power system features are modeled approximately by a linear, lumped element transient circuit and the time domain equations are solved. Exact numericalmore » results for solar array common-mode and load voltage transients are calculated for typical conditions. Acceptable load transients are found for a range of arc current amplitudes and time constants.« less