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Title: Advanced Techniques for Power System Identification from Measured Data

Abstract

Time-synchronized measurements provide rich information for estimating a power-system's electromechanical modal properties via advanced signal processing. This information is becoming critical for the improved operational reliability of interconnected grids. A given mode's properties are described by its frequency, damping, and shape. Modal frequencies and damping are useful indicators of power-system stress, usually declining with increased load or reduced grid capacity. Mode shape provides critical information for operational control actions. This project investigated many advanced techniques for power system identification from measured data focusing on mode frequency and damping ratio estimation. Investigators from the three universities coordinated their effort with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Significant progress was made on developing appropriate techniques for system identification with confidence intervals and testing those techniques on field measured data and through simulation. Experimental data from the western area power system was provided by PNNL and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for both ambient conditions and for signal injection tests. Three large-scale tests were conducted for the western area in 2005 and 2006. Measured field PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit) data was provided to the three universities. A 19-machine simulation model was enhanced for testing the system identification algorithms. Extensive simulations were run with this modelmore » to test the performance of the algorithms. University of Wyoming researchers participated in four primary activities: (1) Block and adaptive processing techniques for mode estimation from ambient signals and probing signals, (2) confidence interval estimation, (3) probing signal design and injection method analysis, and (4) performance assessment and validation from simulated and field measured data. Subspace based methods have been use to improve previous results from block processing techniques. Bootstrap techniques have been developed to estimate confidence intervals for the electromechanical modes from field measured data. Results were obtained using injected signal data provided by BPA. A new probing signal was designed that puts more strength into the signal for a given maximum peak to peak swing. Further simulations were conducted on a model based on measured data and with the modifications of the 19-machine simulation model. Montana Tech researchers participated in two primary activities: (1) continued development of the 19-machine simulation test system to include a DC line; and (2) extensive simulation analysis of the various system identification algorithms and bootstrap techniques using the 19 machine model. Researchers at the University of Alaska-Fairbanks focused on the development and testing of adaptive filter algorithms for mode estimation using data generated from simulation models and on data provided in collaboration with BPA and PNNL. There efforts consist of pre-processing field data, testing and refining adaptive filter techniques (specifically the Least Mean Squares (LMS), the Adaptive Step-size LMS (ASLMS), and Error Tracking (ET) algorithms). They also improved convergence of the adaptive algorithms by using an initial estimate from block processing AR method to initialize the weight vector for LMS. Extensive testing was performed on simulated data from the 19 machine model. This project was also extensively involved in the WECC (Western Electricity Coordinating Council) system wide tests carried out in 2005 and 2006. These tests involved injecting known probing signals into the western power grid. One of the primary goals of these tests was the reliable estimation of electromechanical mode properties from measured PMU data. Applied to the system were three types of probing inputs: (1) activation of the Chief Joseph Dynamic Brake, (2) mid-level probing at the Pacific DC Intertie (PDCI), and (3) low-level probing on the PDCI. The Chief Joseph Dynamic Brake is a 1400 MW disturbance to the system and is injected for a half of a second. For the mid and low-level probing, the Celilo terminal of the PDCI is modulated with a known probing signal. Similar but less extensive tests were conducted in June of 2000. The low-level probing signals were designed at the University of Wyoming. A number of important design factors are considered. The designed low-level probing signal used in the tests is a multi-sine signal. Its frequency content is focused in the range of the inter-area electromechanical modes. The most frequently used of these low-level multi-sine signals had a period of over two minutes, a root-mean-square (rms) value of 14 MW, and a peak magnitude of 20 MW. Up to 15 cycles of this probing signal were injected into the system resulting in a processing gain of 15. The resulting measured response at points throughout the system was not much larger than the ambient noise present in the measurements.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY; University of Alaska-Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK; Montana Tech, Butte, MT
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
943294
Report Number(s):
DOE/FinalReport/ER46044-F
TRN: US201004%%396
DOE Contract Number:  
FG02-03ER46044
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; ALGORITHMS; BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION; BRAKES; CAPACITY; CONVERGENCE; DAMPING; DESIGN; DISTURBANCES; ELECTRICITY; FOCUSING; MODIFICATIONS; POWER SYSTEMS; PROCESSING; REFINING; RELIABILITY; SHAPE; SIMULATION; TESTING; VALIDATION; VECTORS

Citation Formats

Pierre, John W, Wies, Richard, and Trudnowski, Daniel. Advanced Techniques for Power System Identification from Measured Data. United States: N. p., 2008. Web. doi:10.2172/943294.
Pierre, John W, Wies, Richard, & Trudnowski, Daniel. Advanced Techniques for Power System Identification from Measured Data. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/943294
Pierre, John W, Wies, Richard, and Trudnowski, Daniel. Tue . "Advanced Techniques for Power System Identification from Measured Data". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/943294. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/943294.
@article{osti_943294,
title = {Advanced Techniques for Power System Identification from Measured Data},
author = {Pierre, John W and Wies, Richard and Trudnowski, Daniel},
abstractNote = {Time-synchronized measurements provide rich information for estimating a power-system's electromechanical modal properties via advanced signal processing. This information is becoming critical for the improved operational reliability of interconnected grids. A given mode's properties are described by its frequency, damping, and shape. Modal frequencies and damping are useful indicators of power-system stress, usually declining with increased load or reduced grid capacity. Mode shape provides critical information for operational control actions. This project investigated many advanced techniques for power system identification from measured data focusing on mode frequency and damping ratio estimation. Investigators from the three universities coordinated their effort with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Significant progress was made on developing appropriate techniques for system identification with confidence intervals and testing those techniques on field measured data and through simulation. Experimental data from the western area power system was provided by PNNL and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for both ambient conditions and for signal injection tests. Three large-scale tests were conducted for the western area in 2005 and 2006. Measured field PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit) data was provided to the three universities. A 19-machine simulation model was enhanced for testing the system identification algorithms. Extensive simulations were run with this model to test the performance of the algorithms. University of Wyoming researchers participated in four primary activities: (1) Block and adaptive processing techniques for mode estimation from ambient signals and probing signals, (2) confidence interval estimation, (3) probing signal design and injection method analysis, and (4) performance assessment and validation from simulated and field measured data. Subspace based methods have been use to improve previous results from block processing techniques. Bootstrap techniques have been developed to estimate confidence intervals for the electromechanical modes from field measured data. Results were obtained using injected signal data provided by BPA. A new probing signal was designed that puts more strength into the signal for a given maximum peak to peak swing. Further simulations were conducted on a model based on measured data and with the modifications of the 19-machine simulation model. Montana Tech researchers participated in two primary activities: (1) continued development of the 19-machine simulation test system to include a DC line; and (2) extensive simulation analysis of the various system identification algorithms and bootstrap techniques using the 19 machine model. Researchers at the University of Alaska-Fairbanks focused on the development and testing of adaptive filter algorithms for mode estimation using data generated from simulation models and on data provided in collaboration with BPA and PNNL. There efforts consist of pre-processing field data, testing and refining adaptive filter techniques (specifically the Least Mean Squares (LMS), the Adaptive Step-size LMS (ASLMS), and Error Tracking (ET) algorithms). They also improved convergence of the adaptive algorithms by using an initial estimate from block processing AR method to initialize the weight vector for LMS. Extensive testing was performed on simulated data from the 19 machine model. This project was also extensively involved in the WECC (Western Electricity Coordinating Council) system wide tests carried out in 2005 and 2006. These tests involved injecting known probing signals into the western power grid. One of the primary goals of these tests was the reliable estimation of electromechanical mode properties from measured PMU data. Applied to the system were three types of probing inputs: (1) activation of the Chief Joseph Dynamic Brake, (2) mid-level probing at the Pacific DC Intertie (PDCI), and (3) low-level probing on the PDCI. The Chief Joseph Dynamic Brake is a 1400 MW disturbance to the system and is injected for a half of a second. For the mid and low-level probing, the Celilo terminal of the PDCI is modulated with a known probing signal. Similar but less extensive tests were conducted in June of 2000. The low-level probing signals were designed at the University of Wyoming. A number of important design factors are considered. The designed low-level probing signal used in the tests is a multi-sine signal. Its frequency content is focused in the range of the inter-area electromechanical modes. The most frequently used of these low-level multi-sine signals had a period of over two minutes, a root-mean-square (rms) value of 14 MW, and a peak magnitude of 20 MW. Up to 15 cycles of this probing signal were injected into the system resulting in a processing gain of 15. The resulting measured response at points throughout the system was not much larger than the ambient noise present in the measurements.},
doi = {10.2172/943294},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/943294}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2008},
month = {11}
}