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Title: Ultrananocrystalline diamond thin films for MEMS and moving mechanical assembly devices.

Abstract

MEMS devices are currently fabricated primarily in silicon because of the available surface machining technology. A major problem with the Si-based MEMS technology is that Si has poor mechanical and tribological properties [J.J. Sniegowski, in: B. Bushan (Ed.), Tribology Issues and Opportunities in MEMS, Kluwer Academic Publisher, The Netherlands, 1998, p. 325; A.P. Lee, A.P. Pisano, M.G. Lim, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 276 (1992) 67.], and practical MEMS devices are currently limited primarily to applications involving only bending and flexural motion, such as cantilever accelerometers and vibration sensors. However, because of the poor flexural strength and fracture toughness of Si, and the tendency of Si to adhere to hydrophilic surfaces, even these simple devices have limited dynamic range. Future MEMS applications that involve significant rolling or sliding contact will require the use of new materials with significantly improved mechanical and tribological properties, and the ability to perform well in harsh environments, Diamond is a superhard material of high mechanical strength, exceptional chemical inertness, and outstanding thermal stability. The brittle fracture strength is 23 times that of Si, and the projected wear life of diamond MEMS moving mechanical assemblies (MEMS MMAs) is 10 000 times greater than that of Simore » MMAs. However, as the hardest known material, diamond is notoriously difficult to fabricate. Conventional CVD thin film deposition methods offer an approach to the fabrication of ultra-small diamond structures, but the films have large grain size, high internal stress, poor intergranular adhesion, and very rough surfaces, and are consequently ill-suited for MEMS MMA applications. Diamond-like films are also being investigated for application to MEMS devices. However, they involve mainly physical vapor deposition methods that are not suitable for good conformal deposition on high aspect ratio features, and generally they do not exhibit the outstanding mechanical properties of diamond. We demonstrate here the application of a novel microwave plasma technique using a unique C{sub 60}/Ar or CH{sub 4}/Ar chemistry that produces phase-pure ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) coatings with morphological and mechanical properties that are ideally suited for MEMS applications in general, and MMA use in particular. We have developed lithographic techniques for the fabrication of UNCD-MEMS components, including cantilevers and multi-level devices, acting as precursors to microbearings and gears, making UNCD a promising material for the development of high performance MEMS devices.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC); EE
OSTI Identifier:
943255
Report Number(s):
ANL/CHM/JA-38646
Journal ID: ISSN 0925-9635; TRN: US200916%%682
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Diamond Related Mater.
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 11 ; Nov. 2001; Journal ID: ISSN 0925-9635
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
ENGLISH
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; ACCELEROMETERS; ADHESION; ASPECT RATIO; BENDING; CHEMISTRY; COATINGS; DEPOSITION; DIAMONDS; DYNAMICS; EQUIPMENT; FABRICATION; FILMS; FLEXURAL STRENGTH; FRACTURE PROPERTIES; GEARS; GRAIN SIZE; MACHINING; MATERIALS; MECHANICAL PROPERTIES; MOTION; NETHERLANDS; PERFORMANCE; PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; PLASMA; RANGE; ROLLING; SILICON; STABILITY; SURFACES; THIN FILMS; TRIBOLOGY; WEAR; WELLS

Citation Formats

Krauss, A R, Gruen, D M, Jayatissa, A, Sumant, A, Tucek, J, Auciello, O, Mancini, D, Moldovan, N, Erdemir, A, Ersoy, D, Gardos, M N, Busmann, H G, Meyer, E M, Ding, M Q, Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, Raytheon Electronic Systems Comp., Fraunhofer Inst. for Applied Materials Science, Univ. of Bremen, and Beijing Inst. of Electronics. Ultrananocrystalline diamond thin films for MEMS and moving mechanical assembly devices.. United States: N. p., 2001. Web. doi:10.1016/S0925-9635(01)00385-5.
Krauss, A R, Gruen, D M, Jayatissa, A, Sumant, A, Tucek, J, Auciello, O, Mancini, D, Moldovan, N, Erdemir, A, Ersoy, D, Gardos, M N, Busmann, H G, Meyer, E M, Ding, M Q, Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, Raytheon Electronic Systems Comp., Fraunhofer Inst. for Applied Materials Science, Univ. of Bremen, & Beijing Inst. of Electronics. Ultrananocrystalline diamond thin films for MEMS and moving mechanical assembly devices.. United States. doi:10.1016/S0925-9635(01)00385-5.
Krauss, A R, Gruen, D M, Jayatissa, A, Sumant, A, Tucek, J, Auciello, O, Mancini, D, Moldovan, N, Erdemir, A, Ersoy, D, Gardos, M N, Busmann, H G, Meyer, E M, Ding, M Q, Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, Raytheon Electronic Systems Comp., Fraunhofer Inst. for Applied Materials Science, Univ. of Bremen, and Beijing Inst. of Electronics. Thu . "Ultrananocrystalline diamond thin films for MEMS and moving mechanical assembly devices.". United States. doi:10.1016/S0925-9635(01)00385-5.
@article{osti_943255,
title = {Ultrananocrystalline diamond thin films for MEMS and moving mechanical assembly devices.},
author = {Krauss, A R and Gruen, D M and Jayatissa, A and Sumant, A and Tucek, J and Auciello, O and Mancini, D and Moldovan, N and Erdemir, A and Ersoy, D and Gardos, M N and Busmann, H G and Meyer, E M and Ding, M Q and Univ. of Illinois at Chicago and Raytheon Electronic Systems Comp. and Fraunhofer Inst. for Applied Materials Science and Univ. of Bremen and Beijing Inst. of Electronics},
abstractNote = {MEMS devices are currently fabricated primarily in silicon because of the available surface machining technology. A major problem with the Si-based MEMS technology is that Si has poor mechanical and tribological properties [J.J. Sniegowski, in: B. Bushan (Ed.), Tribology Issues and Opportunities in MEMS, Kluwer Academic Publisher, The Netherlands, 1998, p. 325; A.P. Lee, A.P. Pisano, M.G. Lim, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 276 (1992) 67.], and practical MEMS devices are currently limited primarily to applications involving only bending and flexural motion, such as cantilever accelerometers and vibration sensors. However, because of the poor flexural strength and fracture toughness of Si, and the tendency of Si to adhere to hydrophilic surfaces, even these simple devices have limited dynamic range. Future MEMS applications that involve significant rolling or sliding contact will require the use of new materials with significantly improved mechanical and tribological properties, and the ability to perform well in harsh environments, Diamond is a superhard material of high mechanical strength, exceptional chemical inertness, and outstanding thermal stability. The brittle fracture strength is 23 times that of Si, and the projected wear life of diamond MEMS moving mechanical assemblies (MEMS MMAs) is 10 000 times greater than that of Si MMAs. However, as the hardest known material, diamond is notoriously difficult to fabricate. Conventional CVD thin film deposition methods offer an approach to the fabrication of ultra-small diamond structures, but the films have large grain size, high internal stress, poor intergranular adhesion, and very rough surfaces, and are consequently ill-suited for MEMS MMA applications. Diamond-like films are also being investigated for application to MEMS devices. However, they involve mainly physical vapor deposition methods that are not suitable for good conformal deposition on high aspect ratio features, and generally they do not exhibit the outstanding mechanical properties of diamond. We demonstrate here the application of a novel microwave plasma technique using a unique C{sub 60}/Ar or CH{sub 4}/Ar chemistry that produces phase-pure ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) coatings with morphological and mechanical properties that are ideally suited for MEMS applications in general, and MMA use in particular. We have developed lithographic techniques for the fabrication of UNCD-MEMS components, including cantilevers and multi-level devices, acting as precursors to microbearings and gears, making UNCD a promising material for the development of high performance MEMS devices.},
doi = {10.1016/S0925-9635(01)00385-5},
journal = {Diamond Related Mater.},
issn = {0925-9635},
number = 11 ; Nov. 2001,
volume = 10,
place = {United States},
year = {2001},
month = {11}
}