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Title: Combined Heat and Power: Effective Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future

Abstract

Combined Heat and Power (CHP) solutions represent a proven and effective near-term energy option to help the United States enhance energy efficiency, ensure environmental quality, promote economic growth, and foster a robust energy infrastructure. Using CHP today, the United States already avoids more than 1.9 Quadrillion British thermal units (Quads) of fuel consumption and 248 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions annually compared to traditional separate production of electricity and thermal energy. This CO{sub 2} reduction is the equivalent of removing more than 45 million cars from the road. In addition, CHP is one of the few options in the portfolio of energy alternatives that combines environmental effectiveness with economic viability and improved competitiveness. This report describes in detail the four key areas where CHP has proven its effectiveness and holds promise for the future as an: (1) Environmental Solution: Significantly reducing CO{sub 2} emissions through greater energy efficiency; (2) Competitive Business Solution: Increasing efficiency, reducing business costs, and creating green-collar jobs; (3) Local Energy Solution: Deployable throughout the US; and (4) Infrastructure Modernization Solution: Relieving grid congestion and improving energy security. CHP should be one of the first technologies deployed for near-term carbon reductions. The cost-effectivenessmore » and near-term viability of widespread CHP deployment place the technology at the forefront of practical alternative energy solutions such as wind, solar, clean coal, biofuels, and nuclear power. Clear synergies exist between CHP and most other technologies that dominate the energy and environmental policy dialogue in the country today. As the Nation transforms how it produces, transports, and uses the many forms of energy, it must seize the clear opportunity afforded by CHP in terms of climate change, economic competitiveness, energy security, and infrastructure modernization. The energy efficiency benefits of CHP offer significant, realistic solutions to near- and long-term energy issues facing the Nation. With growing demand for energy, tight supply options, and increasing environmental constraints, extracting the maximum output from primary fuel sources through efficiency is critical to sustained economic development and environmental stewardship. Investment in CHP would stimulate the creation of new 'green-collar' jobs, modernize aging energy infrastructure, and protect and enhance the competitiveness of US manufacturing industries. The complementary roles of energy efficiency, renewable energy, and responsible use of traditional energy supplies must be recognized. CHP's proven performance and potential for wider use are evidence of its near-term applicability and, with technological improvements and further elimination of market barriers, of its longer term promise to address the country's most important energy and environmental needs. A strategic approach is needed to encourage CHP where it can be applied today and address the regulatory and technical challenges preventing its long-term viability. Experience in the United States and other countries shows that a balanced set of policies, incentives, business models, and investments can stimulate sustained CHP growth and allow all stakeholders to reap its many well-documented benefits.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [1]
  1. Sentech, Inc.
  2. Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., an ICF Company
  3. ORNL
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
942240
Report Number(s):
ORNL/TM-2008/224
EB5006000; CEEB062; TRN: US200902%%243
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; BIOFUELS; BUSINESS; CARBON DIOXIDE; ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT; EFFICIENCY; ENERGY EFFICIENCY; ENERGY SUPPLIES; ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY; ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY; FUEL CONSUMPTION; NUCLEAR POWER; VIABILITY

Citation Formats

Shipley, Ms. Anna, Hampson, Anne, Hedman, Mr. Bruce, Garland, Patricia W, and Bautista, Paul. Combined Heat and Power: Effective Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future. United States: N. p., 2008. Web. doi:10.2172/942240.
Shipley, Ms. Anna, Hampson, Anne, Hedman, Mr. Bruce, Garland, Patricia W, & Bautista, Paul. Combined Heat and Power: Effective Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future. United States. doi:10.2172/942240.
Shipley, Ms. Anna, Hampson, Anne, Hedman, Mr. Bruce, Garland, Patricia W, and Bautista, Paul. Mon . "Combined Heat and Power: Effective Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future". United States. doi:10.2172/942240. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/942240.
@article{osti_942240,
title = {Combined Heat and Power: Effective Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future},
author = {Shipley, Ms. Anna and Hampson, Anne and Hedman, Mr. Bruce and Garland, Patricia W and Bautista, Paul},
abstractNote = {Combined Heat and Power (CHP) solutions represent a proven and effective near-term energy option to help the United States enhance energy efficiency, ensure environmental quality, promote economic growth, and foster a robust energy infrastructure. Using CHP today, the United States already avoids more than 1.9 Quadrillion British thermal units (Quads) of fuel consumption and 248 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions annually compared to traditional separate production of electricity and thermal energy. This CO{sub 2} reduction is the equivalent of removing more than 45 million cars from the road. In addition, CHP is one of the few options in the portfolio of energy alternatives that combines environmental effectiveness with economic viability and improved competitiveness. This report describes in detail the four key areas where CHP has proven its effectiveness and holds promise for the future as an: (1) Environmental Solution: Significantly reducing CO{sub 2} emissions through greater energy efficiency; (2) Competitive Business Solution: Increasing efficiency, reducing business costs, and creating green-collar jobs; (3) Local Energy Solution: Deployable throughout the US; and (4) Infrastructure Modernization Solution: Relieving grid congestion and improving energy security. CHP should be one of the first technologies deployed for near-term carbon reductions. The cost-effectiveness and near-term viability of widespread CHP deployment place the technology at the forefront of practical alternative energy solutions such as wind, solar, clean coal, biofuels, and nuclear power. Clear synergies exist between CHP and most other technologies that dominate the energy and environmental policy dialogue in the country today. As the Nation transforms how it produces, transports, and uses the many forms of energy, it must seize the clear opportunity afforded by CHP in terms of climate change, economic competitiveness, energy security, and infrastructure modernization. The energy efficiency benefits of CHP offer significant, realistic solutions to near- and long-term energy issues facing the Nation. With growing demand for energy, tight supply options, and increasing environmental constraints, extracting the maximum output from primary fuel sources through efficiency is critical to sustained economic development and environmental stewardship. Investment in CHP would stimulate the creation of new 'green-collar' jobs, modernize aging energy infrastructure, and protect and enhance the competitiveness of US manufacturing industries. The complementary roles of energy efficiency, renewable energy, and responsible use of traditional energy supplies must be recognized. CHP's proven performance and potential for wider use are evidence of its near-term applicability and, with technological improvements and further elimination of market barriers, of its longer term promise to address the country's most important energy and environmental needs. A strategic approach is needed to encourage CHP where it can be applied today and address the regulatory and technical challenges preventing its long-term viability. Experience in the United States and other countries shows that a balanced set of policies, incentives, business models, and investments can stimulate sustained CHP growth and allow all stakeholders to reap its many well-documented benefits.},
doi = {10.2172/942240},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Dec 01 00:00:00 EST 2008},
month = {Mon Dec 01 00:00:00 EST 2008}
}

Technical Report:

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  • This report describes in detail the four key areas where CHP has proven its effectiveness and holds promise for the future—as an: environmental solution, significantly reducing CO 2 emissions through greater energy efficiency; competitive business solution, increasing efficiency, reducing business costs, and creating green-collar jobs; local energy solution, deployable throughout the United States; and infrastructure modernization solution, relieving grid congestion and improving energy security.
  • Sustainability is fundamental to the Department of Energy’s research mission and operations as reflected in the Department’s Strategic Plan. Our overarching mission is to discover the solutions to power and secure America’s future.
  • The primary objectives of this work can be summed into two major categories. Firstly, the fundamentals of the combustion of glycerol (in both a refined and unrefined form) were to be investigated, with emphasis of the development of a system capable of reliably and repeatedly combusting glycerol as well as an analysis of the emissions produced during glycerol combustion. Focus was placed on quantifying common emissions in comparison to more traditional fuels and this work showed that the burner developed was able to completely combust glycerol within a relatively wide range of operating conditions. Additionally, focus was placed on examiningmore » specific emissions in more detail, namely interesting NOx emissions observed in initial trials, acrolein and other volatile organic emissions, and particulate and ash emissions. This work showed that the combustion of crude glycerol could result in significantly reduced NOx emissions as a function of the high fuel bound oxygen content within the glycerol fuel. It also showed that when burned properly, the combustion of crude glycerol did not result in excessive emissions of acrolein or any other VOC compared to the combustion from more traditional fuels. Lastly however, this work has shown that in any practical application in which glycerol is being burned, it will be necessary to explore ash mitigation techniques due to the very high particulate matter concentrations produced during glycerol combustion. These emissions are comparable to unfiltered coal combustion and are directly tied to the biodiesel production method. The second focus of this work was directed to developing a commercialization strategy for the use of glycerol as a fuel replacement. This strategy has identified a 30 month plan for the scaling up of the laboratory scale burner into a pre-pilot scale system. Additionally, financing options were explored and an assessment was made of the economics of replacing a traditional fuel (namely natural gas) with crude glycerol from biodiesel production. This analysis showed that the cost of replacing natural gas with crude glycerol requires a strong function of the market price per unit of energy for the traditional fuel. However, the economics can be improved through the inclusion of a federal tax credit for the use of a renewable fuel. The conclusion of this analysis also shows that the ideal customer for energy replacement via crude glycerol is biodiesel producers who are located in remote regions, where the cost of energy is higher and the cost of crude glycerol is lowest. Lastly, the commercialization strategy analyzed competing technologies, namely traditional natural gas and electric heaters, as well as competing glycerol burners, and concludes with a discussion of the requirements for a pilot demonstration.« less
  • Over the past 10 years, DOE has built a solid foundation for a robust CHP marketplace. We have aligned with key partners to produce innovative technologies and spearhead market-transforming projects. Our commercialization activities and Clean Energy Regional Application Centers have expanded CHP across the nation. More must be done to tap CHP’s full potential. Read more about DOE’s CHP Program in “Combined Heat and Power: A Decade of Progress, A Vision for the Future.”
  • Transportation consumes 68% of the oil used in the U.S. With the security and environmental risks inherent in the US dependence on oil, coupled with the inevitable need to find new sources of fuel, it will be up to today's students to make the important transition away from a transportation system powered by oil to one powered by renewable energy sources. NESEA's 1999 - 2002 Future Wheels for a Sustainable America program worked for increased involvement of teachers, students, and their parents in learning about alternative fueled vehicles and transportation issues in their community, and provided Clean Cities Coordinators withmore » access to educational materials on alternative fueled vehicles and transportation issues that are acceptable to teachers and school systems. To accomplish this, NESEA (1) developed and distributed a new high school unit on the Clean Cities theme of alternative fueled vehicles, (2) organized and held workshops for teachers on these topics, (3) matched state and federal education standards with other instructional resources and materials dealing with these topics, (4) published a resource guide and searchable Web-accessible database for K-12 teachers, and (5) presented these resources to Clean Cities organizers at three conferences. Questionnaire results received from the teachers who pilot tested the high school unit are included.« less