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Title: Species and Time-Resolved Photoluminescence of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Abstract

No abstract prepared.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
941462
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-99-GO10337
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Meeting Abstracts: 209th Meeting of The Electrochemical Society (ECS), 7-11 May 2006, Denver, Colorado; MA 2006-01
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; CARBON; NANOTUBES; PHOTOLUMINESCENCE; Basic Sciences

Citation Formats

Heben, M. J., Metzger, W. K., Jones, M., McDonald, T. J., Engtrakul, C., Ellingson, R. J., and Rumbles, G.. Species and Time-Resolved Photoluminescence of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes. United States: N. p., 2006. Web.
Heben, M. J., Metzger, W. K., Jones, M., McDonald, T. J., Engtrakul, C., Ellingson, R. J., & Rumbles, G.. Species and Time-Resolved Photoluminescence of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes. United States.
Heben, M. J., Metzger, W. K., Jones, M., McDonald, T. J., Engtrakul, C., Ellingson, R. J., and Rumbles, G.. Sun . "Species and Time-Resolved Photoluminescence of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_941462,
title = {Species and Time-Resolved Photoluminescence of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes},
author = {Heben, M. J. and Metzger, W. K. and Jones, M. and McDonald, T. J. and Engtrakul, C. and Ellingson, R. J. and Rumbles, G.},
abstractNote = {No abstract prepared.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}

Conference:
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  • Photoluminescence spectra of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been recorded and analyzed for selected individual nanotubes and structurally sorted bulk samples to clarify the nature of secondary emission features. Room temperature spectra show, in addition to the main peak arising from the E 11 bright exciton, three features at lower frequency, which are identified here (in descending order of energy difference from E 11 emission) as G 1, X 1, and Y 1. The weakest (G 1) is interpreted as a vibrational satellite of E 11 involving excitation of the ~1600 cm -1 G mode. The X 1 feature, althoughmore » more intense than G 1, has a peak amplitude only ~3% of E 11. X 1 emission was found to be polarized parallel to E 11 and to be separated from that peak by 1068 cm -1 in SWCNTs with natural isotopic abundance. The separation remained unchanged for several ( n,m) species, different nanotube environments, and various levels of induced axial strain. In 13C SWCNTs, the spectral separation decreased to 1023 cm -1. The measured isotopic shift points to a phonon-assisted transition that excites the D vibration. This supports prior interpretations of the X 1 band as emission from the dark K-momentum exciton, whose energy we find to be ~230 cm -1 above E 11. The remaining sideband, Y 1, is red-shifted ~300 cm -1 from E 11 and varies in relative intensity among and within individual SWCNTs. We assign it as defect-induced emission, either from an extrinsic state or from a brightened triplet state. In contrast to single-nanotube spectra, bulk samples show asymmetric zero-phonon E 11 peaks, with widths inversely related to SWCNT diameter. As a result, an empirical expression for this dependence is presented to aid the simulation of overlapped emission spectra during quantitative fluorimetric analysis of bulk SWCNT samples.« less
  • Photoluminescent defect states introduced by sp 3 functionalization of semiconducting carbon nanotubes are rapidly emerging as important routes for boosting emission quantum yields and introducing new functionality. Knowledge of the relaxation dynamics of these states is required for understanding how functionalizing agents (molecular dopants) may be designed to access specific behaviors. We measure photoluminescence (PL) decay dynamics of sp 3 defect states introduced by aryl functionalization of the carbon nanotube surface. Results are given for five different nanotube chiralities, each doped with a range of aryl functionality. We find the PL decays of these sp 3 defect states are biexponential,more » with both components relaxing on timescales of ~ 100 ps. Exciton trapping at defects is found to increases PL lifetimes by a factor of 5-10, in comparison to those for the free exciton. A significant chirality dependence is observed in the decay times, ranging from 77 ps for (7,5) nanotubes to > 600 ps for (5,4) structures. The strong correlation of time constants with emission energy indicates relaxation occurs via multiphonon decay processes, with close agreement to theoretical expectations. Variation of the aryl dopant further modulates decay times by 10-15%. The aryl defects also affect PL lifetimes of the free E 11 exciton. Shortening of the E 11 bright state lifetime as defect density increases provides further confirmation that defects act as exciton traps. A similar shortening of the E11 dark exciton lifetime is found as defect density increases, providing strong experimental evidence that dark excitons are also trapped at such defect sites.« less
  • Addition of dithiothreitol (DTT) to a suspension consisting of either DNA or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) wrapped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) caused significant photoluminescence (PL) brightening from the SWCNTs, while PL quenching to different extents was observed for other surfactant-SWCNT suspensions. PL lifetime studies with high temporal resolution show that addition of DTT mitigates non-radiative decay processes, but also surprisingly increases the radiative decay rate for DNA- and SDS-SWCNTs. There are completely opposite effects on the decay rates found for the other surfactant-SWCNTs and show PL quenching. Here, we propose that the PL brightening results from a surfactant reorganization uponmore » DTT addition. TOC« less
  • Variable temperature photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of three (n,m) species of single-walled carbon nanotubes revealed that at resonant S 22 excitation, in addition to allowed excitonic optical transitions, several sidebands that should be forbidden based on selection rules were observed and appeared to have a strong temperature dependence. In particular, we found that a sideband located approximately 130 meV away from the bright S 11 exciton peak relating to the K-momentum dark exciton state, called X 1, decreased in intensity five-fold as the samples were cooled. Direct optical excitation of this dark state is nominally forbidden, thus calling into question howmore » the state is populated, and why it is so prominent in the photoluminescence spectrum. Interestingly, the ratio of the integrated photoluminescence intensities of X 1 to S 11 scales with a Boltzmann factor unrelated to the phonon that is thought to be responsible for depopulating the K-momentum dark exciton state: an in-plane transverse optical phonon, A 1’. Furthermore, photoluminescence spectra from individual (7,5) nanotubes show that only a small fraction exhibit the X 1 feature, with varying oscillator strength, thus suggesting that intrinsic processes such as phonon scattering are not responsible for populating the dark state. Alternatively, we suggest that populating the K-momentum dark exciton state requires scattering from defects, which is consistent with the increased magnitude of the X 1 feature for samples with increased sample purification and processing. Thus, the presence of an X 1 peak in photoluminescence is an extremely sensitive spectroscopic indicator of defects on single-walled carbon nanotubes.« less