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Title: Hydrogenases and Hydrogen Photoproduction in Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms

Abstract

The photobiological production of H{sub 2} gas, using water as the only electron donor, is a property of two types of photosynthetic microorganisms: green algae and cyanobacteria. In these organisms, photosynthetic water splitting is functionally linked to H{sub 2} production by the activity of hydrogenase enzymes. Interestingly, each of these organisms contains only one of two major types of hydrogenases, [FeFe] or [NiFe] enzymes, which are phylogenetically distinct but perform the same catalytic reaction, suggesting convergent evolution. This idea is supported by the observation that each of the two classes of hydrogenases has a different metallo-cluster, is encoded by entirely different sets of genes (apparently under the control of different promoter elements), and exhibits different maturation pathways. The genetics, biosynthesis, structure, function, and O{sub 2} sensitivity of these enzymes have been the focus of extensive research in recent years. Some of this effort is clearly driven by the potential for using these enzymes in future biological or biohybrid systems to produce renewable fuel or in fuel cell applications.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
941437
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-99-GO10337
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Annual Review of Plant Biology; Journal Volume: 58; Journal Issue: 2007
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
08 HYDROGEN; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; ALGAE; BINDING ENERGY; BIOSYNTHESIS; CYANOBACTERIA; ELECTRONS; ENZYMES; FUEL CELLS; GENES; GENETICS; HYDROGEN; HYDROGENASES; MICROORGANISMS; PHOTOPRODUCTION; PRODUCTION; PROMOTERS; SENSITIVITY; VALENCE; WATER; Hydrogen

Citation Formats

Ghirardi, M. L., Posewitz, M. C., Maness, P. C., Dubini, A., Yu, J., and Seibert, M. Hydrogenases and Hydrogen Photoproduction in Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.58.032806.103848.
Ghirardi, M. L., Posewitz, M. C., Maness, P. C., Dubini, A., Yu, J., & Seibert, M. Hydrogenases and Hydrogen Photoproduction in Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms. United States. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.58.032806.103848.
Ghirardi, M. L., Posewitz, M. C., Maness, P. C., Dubini, A., Yu, J., and Seibert, M. Mon . "Hydrogenases and Hydrogen Photoproduction in Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms". United States. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.58.032806.103848.
@article{osti_941437,
title = {Hydrogenases and Hydrogen Photoproduction in Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms},
author = {Ghirardi, M. L. and Posewitz, M. C. and Maness, P. C. and Dubini, A. and Yu, J. and Seibert, M.},
abstractNote = {The photobiological production of H{sub 2} gas, using water as the only electron donor, is a property of two types of photosynthetic microorganisms: green algae and cyanobacteria. In these organisms, photosynthetic water splitting is functionally linked to H{sub 2} production by the activity of hydrogenase enzymes. Interestingly, each of these organisms contains only one of two major types of hydrogenases, [FeFe] or [NiFe] enzymes, which are phylogenetically distinct but perform the same catalytic reaction, suggesting convergent evolution. This idea is supported by the observation that each of the two classes of hydrogenases has a different metallo-cluster, is encoded by entirely different sets of genes (apparently under the control of different promoter elements), and exhibits different maturation pathways. The genetics, biosynthesis, structure, function, and O{sub 2} sensitivity of these enzymes have been the focus of extensive research in recent years. Some of this effort is clearly driven by the potential for using these enzymes in future biological or biohybrid systems to produce renewable fuel or in fuel cell applications.},
doi = {10.1146/annurev.arplant.58.032806.103848},
journal = {Annual Review of Plant Biology},
number = 2007,
volume = 58,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gasmore » production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.« less
  • A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gasmore » production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.« less
  • Members of the cyanobacterial genus Cyanothece exhibit considerable variation in physiological and biochemical characteristics. The comparative assessment of the genomes and the proteomes has the potential to provide insights on differences among Cyanothece strains. By applying Sequedex (http://sequedex.lanl.gov), an annotationindependent method for ascribing gene functions, we confirmed significant speciesspecific differences of functional genes in different Cyanothece strains, particularly in Cyanothece PCC7425. Using a shotgun proteomics approach based on prefractionation and tandem mass spectrometry, we detected ~28-48% of the theoretical Cyanothece proteome depending on the strain. The expression of a total of 642 orthologous proteins was observed in all five Cyanothecemore » strains. These shared orthologous proteins showed considerable correlations in their protein abundances across different Cyanothece strains. Functional classification indicated that the majority of proteins involved in central metabolic functions such as amino acid, carbohydrate, protein and RNA metabolism, photosynthesis, respiration and stress responses were observed to a greater extent in the core proteome, whereas proteins involved in membrane transport, iron acquisition, regulatory functions, flagellar motility and chemotaxis were observed to a greater extent in the unique proteome. Considerable differences were evident across different Cyanothece strains. Notably, the analysis of Cyanothece PCC7425, which showed the highest number of unique proteins (682),« less
  • Photosynthetic bacterial strains isolated from tropical and subtropical marine environments that have high growth and hydrogen production were selected and immobilized in agar. Immobilization significantly stabilized H/sub 2/ production by preventing the inhibitory effect from O/sub 2/. Immobilized Chromatium sp. removed sulfide from medium effectively and simultaneously produced H/sub 2/. Immobilized Rhodopseudomonas sp., which had wide organic substrate specificity, were also used to treat waste water from an orange-processing plant. Removal of total organic carbon (TOC), near-complete reduction of BOD, and simultaneous H/sub 2/ photoproduction were also demonstrated. Continuous H/sub 2/ photoproduction was carried out for several weeks with periodicmore » addition of waste in indoor artificial light. These experiments were successfully applied in outdoor natural sunlight conditions. These data clearly demonstrated that immobilized selected strains of photosynthetic bacteria can be effectively used simultaneously for waste treatment and clean energy (H/sub 2/) production. 31 references, 6 figures, 1 table.« less