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Title: Piezoelectric/ultrananocrystalline diamond heterostructures for high-performance multifunctional micro/nanoelectromechanical systems.

Abstract

Most current micro/nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) are based on silicon. However, silicon exhibits relatively poor mechanical/tribological properties, compromising applications to some devices. Diamond films with superior mechanical/tribological properties provide an excellent alternative platform material. Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD{reg_sign}) in film form with 2-5 nm grains exhibits excellent properties for high-performance MEMS/NEMS devices. Concurrently, piezoelectric Pb(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x})O{sub 3} (PZT) films provide high sensitivity/low electrical noise for sensing/high-force actuation at relatively low voltages. Therefore, integration of PZT and UNCD films provides a high-performance platform for advanced MEMS/NEMS devices. This letter describes the bases of such integration and demonstration of low voltage piezoactuated hybrid PZT/UNCD cantilevers.

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
940701
Report Number(s):
ANL/MSD/JA-57796
Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951; APPLAB; TRN: US200824%%177
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Appl. Phys. Lett.; Journal Volume: 90; Journal Issue: 2007
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
ENGLISH
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; DIAMONDS; MICROELECTRONICS; NANOSTRUCTURES; PIEZOELECTRICITY; PZT

Citation Formats

Srinivasan, S., Hiller, J., Kabius, B., and Auciello, O. Piezoelectric/ultrananocrystalline diamond heterostructures for high-performance multifunctional micro/nanoelectromechanical systems.. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2679209.
Srinivasan, S., Hiller, J., Kabius, B., & Auciello, O. Piezoelectric/ultrananocrystalline diamond heterostructures for high-performance multifunctional micro/nanoelectromechanical systems.. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2679209.
Srinivasan, S., Hiller, J., Kabius, B., and Auciello, O. Mon . "Piezoelectric/ultrananocrystalline diamond heterostructures for high-performance multifunctional micro/nanoelectromechanical systems.". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2679209.
@article{osti_940701,
title = {Piezoelectric/ultrananocrystalline diamond heterostructures for high-performance multifunctional micro/nanoelectromechanical systems.},
author = {Srinivasan, S. and Hiller, J. and Kabius, B. and Auciello, O.},
abstractNote = {Most current micro/nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) are based on silicon. However, silicon exhibits relatively poor mechanical/tribological properties, compromising applications to some devices. Diamond films with superior mechanical/tribological properties provide an excellent alternative platform material. Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD{reg_sign}) in film form with 2-5 nm grains exhibits excellent properties for high-performance MEMS/NEMS devices. Concurrently, piezoelectric Pb(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x})O{sub 3} (PZT) films provide high sensitivity/low electrical noise for sensing/high-force actuation at relatively low voltages. Therefore, integration of PZT and UNCD films provides a high-performance platform for advanced MEMS/NEMS devices. This letter describes the bases of such integration and demonstration of low voltage piezoactuated hybrid PZT/UNCD cantilevers.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2679209},
journal = {Appl. Phys. Lett.},
number = 2007,
volume = 90,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Most current micro/nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) are based on silicon. However, silicon exhibits relatively poor mechanical/tribological properties, compromising applications to some devices. Diamond films with superior mechanical/tribological properties provide an excellent alternative platform material. Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD{reg_sign}) in film form with 2-5 nm grains exhibits excellent properties for high-performance MEMS/NEMS devices. Concurrently, piezoelectric Pb(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x})O{sub 3} (PZT) films provide high sensitivity/low electrical noise for sensing/high-force actuation at relatively low voltages. Therefore, integration of PZT and UNCD films provides a high-performance platform for advanced MEMS/NEMS devices. This letter describes the bases of such integration and demonstration of low voltage piezoactuated hybridmore » PZT/UNCD cantilevers.« less
  • The scaling of piezoelectric nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) is challenged by the synthesis of ultrathin and high quality piezoelectric films on very thin electrodes. We report the synthesis and characterization of the thinnest piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) films (10 nm) ever deposited on ultrathin platinum layers (2–5 nm) using reactive sputtering. X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and fast Fourier transform analyses confirmed the proper crystal orientation, fine columnar texture, and the continuous lattice structure within individual grains in the deposited AlN nanometer thick films. The average extracted d{sub 31} piezoelectric coefficient for the synthesized films is −1.73 pC/N, which is comparable tomore » the reported values for micron thick and highly c-axis oriented AlN films. The 10 nm AlN films were employed to demonstrate two different types of optimized piezoelectric nanoactuators. The unimorph actuators exhibit vertical displacements as large as 1.1 μm at 0.7 V for 25 μm long and 30 nm thick beams. These results have a great potential to realize miniaturized NEMS relays with extremely low voltage, high frequency resonators, and ultrasensitive sensors.« less
  • We have characterized mechanical properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) thin films grown using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique at 680 C, significantly lower than the conventional growth temperature of {approx}800 C. The films have {approx}4.3% sp{sup 2} content in the near-surface region as revealed by near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. The films, {approx}1 {micro}m thick, exhibit a net residual compressive stress of 370 {+-} 1 MPa averaged over the entire 150 mm wafer. UNCD microcantilever resonator structures and overhanging ledges were fabricated using lithography, dry etching, and wet release techniques. Overhanging ledges of the filmsmore » released from the substrate exhibited periodic undulations due to stress relaxation. This was used to determine a biaxial modulus of 838 {+-} 2 GPa. Resonant excitation and ring-down measurements in the kHz frequency range of the microcantilevers were conducted under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions in a customized UHV atomic force microscope system to determine Young's modulus as well as mechanical dissipation of cantilever structures at room temperature. Young's modulus is found to be 790 {+-} 30 GPa. Based on these measurements, Poisson's ratio is estimated to be 0.057 {+-} 0.038. The quality factors (Q) of these resonators ranged from 5000 to 16000. These Q values are lower than theoretically expected from the intrinsic properties of diamond. The results indicate that surface and bulk defects are the main contributors to the observed dissipation in UNCD resonators.« less
  • A fast, simple, scalable technique is described for the controlled, solution-based, electrochemical synthesis of patterned metallic and semiconducting nanowires from reusable, nonsacrificial, ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) templates. This enables the repeated fabrication of arrays of complex patterns of nanowires, potentially made of any electrochemically depositable material. Unlike all other methods of patterning nanowires, this benchtop technique quickly mass-produces patterned nanowires whose diameters are not predefined by the template, without requiring intervening vacuum or clean room processing. This technique opens a pathway for studying nanoscale phenomena with minimal equipment, allowing the process-scale development of a new generation of nanowire-based devices.