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Title: Role of Ion Damage on Unintentional Ca Incorporation During the Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy Growth of Dilute Nitrides Using N2/Ar Source Gas Mixtures

Abstract

Unintentional Ca incorporation caused by Ca-contaminated substrate surfaces on as-purchased GaAs wafers are known to limit the efficiency of solar cells based on dilute nitride materials. This article focuses on further understanding the conditions and mechanisms by which these Ca impurities incorporate. Plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy utilizing a 1% N{sub 2} in Ar precursor gas mixture was used to grow GaAs at 400 and 580 C, and GaN{sub 0.01}As{sub 0.99} at 400 C. Two plasma operating combinations of rf power and gas flow rate were used to generate different amounts and energies of both ions and other plasma species, while keeping nitrogen incorporation constant. The ions were characterized with a dual-grid, retarding-field ion energy analyzer, and the corresponding ion energy distributions are presented to correlate ions with Ca incorporation. When appropriate, dc-biased deflector plates were used to remove ions during growth. Secondary ion mass spectrometry was used to measure Ca in GaAs and GaN{sub 0.01}As{sub 0.99}. Ca incorporation was observed in the dilute nitride samples, but the effects of ions did not exceed other Ca incorporation mechanisms associated with defects due to both low temperature growth and nitrogen incorporation; however, different neutral active nitrogen species (atomic N and metastable N{sub 2})more » may be a factor. Ca incorporation measured in GaAs grown at 400 C with a pure Ar plasma is predominantly due to defects associated with low temperature growth, as opposed to plasma damage caused by the ions. GaAs growths at 580 C without a plasma did not exhibit Ca incorporation, but growth at 580 C with ions from a pure Ar plasma caused Ca incorporation.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
940629
DOE Contract Number:  
AC36-99-GO10337
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Vacuum Science Technology. Part B. Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 26; Journal Issue: 3, May/June 2008
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; DEFECTS; EFFICIENCY; ENERGY SPECTRA; EPITAXY; GAS FLOW; IMPURITIES; MASS SPECTROSCOPY; MIXTURES; NITRIDES; NITROGEN; PLASMA; PLATES; PRECURSOR; SOLAR CELLS; SUBSTRATES; Solar Energy - Photovoltaics

Citation Formats

Oye, M M, Bank, S R, Ptak, A J, Reedy, R C, Goorsky, M S, and Holmes, Jr, A L. Role of Ion Damage on Unintentional Ca Incorporation During the Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy Growth of Dilute Nitrides Using N2/Ar Source Gas Mixtures. United States: N. p., 2008. Web. doi:10.1116/1.2924329.
Oye, M M, Bank, S R, Ptak, A J, Reedy, R C, Goorsky, M S, & Holmes, Jr, A L. Role of Ion Damage on Unintentional Ca Incorporation During the Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy Growth of Dilute Nitrides Using N2/Ar Source Gas Mixtures. United States. https://doi.org/10.1116/1.2924329
Oye, M M, Bank, S R, Ptak, A J, Reedy, R C, Goorsky, M S, and Holmes, Jr, A L. Thu . "Role of Ion Damage on Unintentional Ca Incorporation During the Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy Growth of Dilute Nitrides Using N2/Ar Source Gas Mixtures". United States. https://doi.org/10.1116/1.2924329.
@article{osti_940629,
title = {Role of Ion Damage on Unintentional Ca Incorporation During the Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy Growth of Dilute Nitrides Using N2/Ar Source Gas Mixtures},
author = {Oye, M M and Bank, S R and Ptak, A J and Reedy, R C and Goorsky, M S and Holmes, Jr, A L},
abstractNote = {Unintentional Ca incorporation caused by Ca-contaminated substrate surfaces on as-purchased GaAs wafers are known to limit the efficiency of solar cells based on dilute nitride materials. This article focuses on further understanding the conditions and mechanisms by which these Ca impurities incorporate. Plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy utilizing a 1% N{sub 2} in Ar precursor gas mixture was used to grow GaAs at 400 and 580 C, and GaN{sub 0.01}As{sub 0.99} at 400 C. Two plasma operating combinations of rf power and gas flow rate were used to generate different amounts and energies of both ions and other plasma species, while keeping nitrogen incorporation constant. The ions were characterized with a dual-grid, retarding-field ion energy analyzer, and the corresponding ion energy distributions are presented to correlate ions with Ca incorporation. When appropriate, dc-biased deflector plates were used to remove ions during growth. Secondary ion mass spectrometry was used to measure Ca in GaAs and GaN{sub 0.01}As{sub 0.99}. Ca incorporation was observed in the dilute nitride samples, but the effects of ions did not exceed other Ca incorporation mechanisms associated with defects due to both low temperature growth and nitrogen incorporation; however, different neutral active nitrogen species (atomic N and metastable N{sub 2}) may be a factor. Ca incorporation measured in GaAs grown at 400 C with a pure Ar plasma is predominantly due to defects associated with low temperature growth, as opposed to plasma damage caused by the ions. GaAs growths at 580 C without a plasma did not exhibit Ca incorporation, but growth at 580 C with ions from a pure Ar plasma caused Ca incorporation.},
doi = {10.1116/1.2924329},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/940629}, journal = {Journal of Vacuum Science Technology. Part B. Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures},
number = 3, May/June 2008,
volume = 26,
place = {United States},
year = {2008},
month = {5}
}