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Title: The role of EBIT in X-ray laser research

Abstract

Back in the early 1980's the X-ray laser program required a new level of understanding and measurements of the atomic physics of highly charged ions. The electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) was developed and built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the effort to understand and measure the cross sections and wavelengths of highly charged ions. In this paper we will discuss some of the early history of EBIT and how it was used to help in the development of X-ray lasers. EBIT's capability was unique and we will show some of the experimental results obtained over the years that were done related to X-ray lasers. As X-ray lasers have now become a table-top tool we will show some new areas of research that involve understanding the index of refraction in partially ionized plasmas and suggest new areas where EBIT may be able to contribute.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
940489
Report Number(s):
UCRL-JRNL-227556
Journal ID: ISSN 0008-4204; CJPHAD; TRN: US0807143
DOE Contract Number:
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Canadian Journal of Physics, vol. 86, no. 1, January 1, 2008, pp. 19-23; Journal Volume: 86; Journal Issue: 1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION; ATOMIC PHYSICS; CROSS SECTIONS; LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY; REFRACTIVE INDEX; WAVELENGTHS; X-RAY LASERS

Citation Formats

Nilsen, J. The role of EBIT in X-ray laser research. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Nilsen, J. The role of EBIT in X-ray laser research. United States.
Nilsen, J. Thu . "The role of EBIT in X-ray laser research". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/940489.
@article{osti_940489,
title = {The role of EBIT in X-ray laser research},
author = {Nilsen, J},
abstractNote = {Back in the early 1980's the X-ray laser program required a new level of understanding and measurements of the atomic physics of highly charged ions. The electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) was developed and built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the effort to understand and measure the cross sections and wavelengths of highly charged ions. In this paper we will discuss some of the early history of EBIT and how it was used to help in the development of X-ray lasers. EBIT's capability was unique and we will show some of the experimental results obtained over the years that were done related to X-ray lasers. As X-ray lasers have now become a table-top tool we will show some new areas of research that involve understanding the index of refraction in partially ionized plasmas and suggest new areas where EBIT may be able to contribute.},
doi = {},
journal = {Canadian Journal of Physics, vol. 86, no. 1, January 1, 2008, pp. 19-23},
number = 1,
volume = 86,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jan 25 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Thu Jan 25 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • A number of photo-pumping schemes for x-ray lasers have been studied at the electron beam ion trap. By choosing the electron beam energy, we can select a dominant charge state. Several pair of multicharged ions are good candidates for photo-pumping. {copyright} {ital 1994} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.
  • The x-ray spectrometer (XRS) instrument is a revolutionary nondispersive spectrometer that will form the basis for the Astro-E2 observatory to be launched in 2005. We have recently installed a flight spare XRS microcalorimeter spectrometer at the EBIT-I and SuperEBIT facility at LLNL replacing the XRS from the earlier Astro-E mission and providing twice the resolving power. The XRS microcalorimeter is an x-ray detector that senses the heat deposited by the incident photon. It achieves a high energy resolution by operating at 0.06 K and by carefully engineering the heat capacity and thermal conductance. The XRS/EBIT instrument has 32 pixels inmore » a square geometry and achieves an energy resolution of 6 eV at 6 keV, with a bandpass from 0.1 to 12 keV (or more at higher operating temperature). The instrument allows detailed studies of the x-ray line emission of laboratory plasmas. The XRS/EBIT also provides an extensive calibration 'library' for the Astro-E2 observatory.« less
  • A number of photo-pumping schemes for x-ray lasers have been studied at the electron beam ion trap. By choosing the electron beam energy, we can select a dominant charge state. Several pair of multicharged ions are good candidates for photo-pumping.
  • No abstract prepared.
  • A detailed spectral model has been developed for the computer simulation of the 2p {yields} 1s K{alpha} X-ray emission from highly charged Fe ions in the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT). The spectral features of interest occur in the range from 1.84 {angstrom} to 1.94 {angstrom}. The fundamental radiative emission processes associated with radiationless electron capture or dielectronic recombination, inner-shell electron collisional excitation, and inner-shell electron collisional ionization are taken in account. For comparison, spectral observations and simulations for high-temperature magnetic-fusion (Tokamak) plasmas are reviewed. In these plasmas, small departures from steady-state corona-model charge-state distributions can occur due to ionmore » transport processes, while the assumption of equilibrium (Maxwellian) electron energy distributions is expected to be valid. Our investigations for EBIT have been directed at the identification of spectral features that can serve as diagnostics of extreme non-equilibrium or transient-ionization conditions, and allowance has been made for general (non-Maxwellian) electron energy distributions. For the precise interpretation of the high-resolution X-ray observations, which may involve the analysis of blended spectral features composed of many lines, it has been necessary to take into account the multitude of individual fine-structure components of the K{alpha} radiative transitions in the ions from Fe XVIII to Fe XXV. At electron densities higher than the validity range of the corona-model approximation, collisionally induced transitions among low-lying excited states can play an important role. It is found that inner-shell electron excitation and ionization processes involving the complex intermediate ions from Fe XVIII to Fe XXI produce spectral features, in the wavelength range from 1.89 {angstrom} to 1.94 {angstrom}, which are particularly sensitive to density variations and transient ionization conditions.« less