skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Production of Endohedral Fullerenes by Ion Implantation

Abstract

The empty interior cavity of fullerenes has long been touted for containment of radionuclides during in vivo transport, during radioimmunotherapy (RIT) and radioimaging for example. As the chemistry required to open a hole in fullerene is complex and exceedingly unlikely to occur in vivo, and conformational stability of the fullerene cage is absolute, atoms trapped within fullerenes can only be released during extremely energetic events. Encapsulating radionuclides in fullerenes could therefore potentially eliminate undesired toxicity resulting from leakage and catabolism of radionuclides administered with other techniques. At the start of this project however, methods for production of transition metal and p-electron metal endohedral fullerenes were completely unknown, and only one method for production of endohedral radiofullerenes was known. They therefore investigated three different methods for the production of therapeutically useful endohedral metallofullerenes: (1) implantation of ions using the high intensity ion beam at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Surface Modification and Characterization Research Center (SMAC) and fullerenes as the target; (2) implantation of ions using the recoil energy following alpha decay; and (3) implantation of ions using the recoil energy following neutron capture, using ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) as a thermal neutron source. While they were unablemore » to obtain evidence of successful implantation using the ion beam at SMAC, recoil following alpha decay and neutron capture were both found to be economically viable methods for the production of therapeutically useful radiofullerenes. In this report, the procedures for preparing fullerenes containing the isotopes {sup 212}Pb, {sup 212}Bi, {sup 213}Bi, and {sup 177}Lu are described. None of these endohedral fullerenes had ever previously been prepared, and all of these radioisotopes are actively under investigation for RIT. Additionally, the chemistry for derivatizing the radiofullerenes for water-solubility and a method for removing exohedral radionuclides are reported. The methods and chemistry developed during this CRADA are the crucial first steps for the development of fullerenes as a method superior to existing technologies for in vivo transport of radionuclides.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
940291
Report Number(s):
ORNL01-0624
TRN: US201206%%1
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ALPHA DECAY; ATOMS; BISMUTH 212; BISMUTH 213; CAPTURE; CATABOLISM; CHEMISTRY; CONTAINMENT; ENERGY TRANSFER; FULLERENES; ION BEAMS; ION IMPLANTATION; LEAD 212; LUTETIUM 177; MODIFICATIONS; NEUTRON REACTIONS; RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY; RADIOISOTOPES; RECOILS; THERMAL NEUTRONS; TRANSITION ELEMENTS

Citation Formats

Diener, M.D., Alford, J. M., and Mirzadeh, S. Production of Endohedral Fullerenes by Ion Implantation. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.2172/940291.
Diener, M.D., Alford, J. M., & Mirzadeh, S. Production of Endohedral Fullerenes by Ion Implantation. United States. doi:10.2172/940291.
Diener, M.D., Alford, J. M., and Mirzadeh, S. Thu . "Production of Endohedral Fullerenes by Ion Implantation". United States. doi:10.2172/940291. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/940291.
@article{osti_940291,
title = {Production of Endohedral Fullerenes by Ion Implantation},
author = {Diener, M.D. and Alford, J. M. and Mirzadeh, S.},
abstractNote = {The empty interior cavity of fullerenes has long been touted for containment of radionuclides during in vivo transport, during radioimmunotherapy (RIT) and radioimaging for example. As the chemistry required to open a hole in fullerene is complex and exceedingly unlikely to occur in vivo, and conformational stability of the fullerene cage is absolute, atoms trapped within fullerenes can only be released during extremely energetic events. Encapsulating radionuclides in fullerenes could therefore potentially eliminate undesired toxicity resulting from leakage and catabolism of radionuclides administered with other techniques. At the start of this project however, methods for production of transition metal and p-electron metal endohedral fullerenes were completely unknown, and only one method for production of endohedral radiofullerenes was known. They therefore investigated three different methods for the production of therapeutically useful endohedral metallofullerenes: (1) implantation of ions using the high intensity ion beam at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Surface Modification and Characterization Research Center (SMAC) and fullerenes as the target; (2) implantation of ions using the recoil energy following alpha decay; and (3) implantation of ions using the recoil energy following neutron capture, using ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) as a thermal neutron source. While they were unable to obtain evidence of successful implantation using the ion beam at SMAC, recoil following alpha decay and neutron capture were both found to be economically viable methods for the production of therapeutically useful radiofullerenes. In this report, the procedures for preparing fullerenes containing the isotopes {sup 212}Pb, {sup 212}Bi, {sup 213}Bi, and {sup 177}Lu are described. None of these endohedral fullerenes had ever previously been prepared, and all of these radioisotopes are actively under investigation for RIT. Additionally, the chemistry for derivatizing the radiofullerenes for water-solubility and a method for removing exohedral radionuclides are reported. The methods and chemistry developed during this CRADA are the crucial first steps for the development of fullerenes as a method superior to existing technologies for in vivo transport of radionuclides.},
doi = {10.2172/940291},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu May 31 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Thu May 31 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}

Technical Report:

Save / Share:
  • In this paper, we discuss the results of our study of the synthesis of endohedral iron-fullerenes. A low energy Fe{sup +} ion beam was irradiated to C{sub 60} thin film by using a deceleration system. Fe{sup +}-irradiated C{sub 60} thin film was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and laser desorption/ ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We investigated the performance of the deceleration system for using a Fe{sup +} beam with low energy. In addition, we attempted to isolate the synthesized material from a Fe{sup +}-irradiated C{sub 60} thin film by high performance liquid chromatography.
  • Catalytic activity for oxygen-ion production in a phosphoric acid fuel cell was observed with electrodes prepared with nitrogen ion-implanted carbon blacks. These electrodes were prepared without the addition of any metals, and especially without platinum. Comparisons to electrodes prepared with platinum and metal-ion implants is presented. Methods of preparation and measurement are discussed.
  • Catalytic activity for oxygen-ion production in a phosphoric acid fuel cell was observed with electrodes prepared with nitrogen ion-implanted carbon blacks. The electrodes were prepared without the addition of any metals. Comparisons to electrodes prepared with metal-ion implants is presented. Methods of preparation and electrochemical evaluation methods are discussed.
  • The application of the ion implantation process to present day materials and fabricate cells and temperature effects were investigated. Thermal annealing was compared to pulsed electron beam annealing. It is found that use of ion implantation allows tailoring of thermal process to a particular sheet material, EFG is improved after high temp, SILSO is degraded after high temp, HEM affected most at 550 to 750 deg C, SEMIX appears independent of process temp, and CZ is degraded by processing at 750 deg C. It is concluded that ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing can be successfully employed for junction formation.