skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Alkali-vapor emission from PFBC of Illinois coals.

Abstract

Two Illinois Herrin No. 6 coals and one Illinois Springfield No. 5 coal were combusted in a laboratory-scale PFBC/alkali sorber facility with a bed of Tymochtee dolomite at temperatures ranging from 910 to 950oC and a system pressure of 9.2 atm absolute. Alkali vapor emission (Na and K) from combustion was determined by analytical activated-bauxite sorber bed technique. The test results showed that sodium is the major alkali-vapor species present in the PFBC flue gas of these coals and that there is a positive linear relationship between the level of sodium-vapor emission with both Na and Cl contents in the coals.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
FE
OSTI Identifier:
937633
Report Number(s):
ANL/CMT/JA-4193
Journal ID: ISSN 0010-2202; CBSTB9; TRN: US200905%%459
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: J. Combust. Sci. Technol.; Journal Volume: 86; Journal Issue: 1992
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
ENGLISH
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; COAL; COMBUSTION; DOLOMITE; FLUE GAS; ILLINOIS; SODIUM

Citation Formats

Lee, S. H. D., Teats, F. G., Swift, W. M., Banerjee, D. D., Chemical Engineering, and Center for Research on Sulfur in Coal. Alkali-vapor emission from PFBC of Illinois coals.. United States: N. p., 1992. Web. doi:10.1080/00102209208947202.
Lee, S. H. D., Teats, F. G., Swift, W. M., Banerjee, D. D., Chemical Engineering, & Center for Research on Sulfur in Coal. Alkali-vapor emission from PFBC of Illinois coals.. United States. doi:10.1080/00102209208947202.
Lee, S. H. D., Teats, F. G., Swift, W. M., Banerjee, D. D., Chemical Engineering, and Center for Research on Sulfur in Coal. 1992. "Alkali-vapor emission from PFBC of Illinois coals.". United States. doi:10.1080/00102209208947202.
@article{osti_937633,
title = {Alkali-vapor emission from PFBC of Illinois coals.},
author = {Lee, S. H. D. and Teats, F. G. and Swift, W. M. and Banerjee, D. D. and Chemical Engineering and Center for Research on Sulfur in Coal},
abstractNote = {Two Illinois Herrin No. 6 coals and one Illinois Springfield No. 5 coal were combusted in a laboratory-scale PFBC/alkali sorber facility with a bed of Tymochtee dolomite at temperatures ranging from 910 to 950oC and a system pressure of 9.2 atm absolute. Alkali vapor emission (Na and K) from combustion was determined by analytical activated-bauxite sorber bed technique. The test results showed that sodium is the major alkali-vapor species present in the PFBC flue gas of these coals and that there is a positive linear relationship between the level of sodium-vapor emission with both Na and Cl contents in the coals.},
doi = {10.1080/00102209208947202},
journal = {J. Combust. Sci. Technol.},
number = 1992,
volume = 86,
place = {United States},
year = 1992,
month = 1
}
  • Two Illinois Herrin No. 6 coals and one Illinois Springfield No. 5 coal were separately combusted in a laboratory-scale (15-cm dia) pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) combined with an alkali sorber. These coals were combusted in a fluidized bed of Tymochtee dolomite at temperatures ranging from 910 to 950[degree]C and a system pressure of 9.2 atm absolute. Alkali-vapor emission (Na and K) in the PFBC flue gas was determined by the analytical activated-bauxite sorber bed technique developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The test results showed that sodium is the major alkali-vapor species present in the PFBC flue gas, and that themore » level of sodium-vapor emission increases linearly with both Na and Cl contents in the coals. This suggests that the sodium-vapor emission results from direct vaporization of NaCl present in the coals. The measured alkali-vapor concentration (Na + K), 67 to 190 ppbW, is more than 2.5 times greater than the allowable alkali limit of 24 ppb for an industrial gas turbine. Combusting these coals in a PFBC for power generation may require developing a method to control alkali vapors.« less
  • Two Illinois Herrin No. 6 coals and one Illinois Springfield No. 5 coal were separately combusted in a laboratory-scale (15-cm dia) pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) combined with an alkali sorber. These coals were combusted in a fluidized bed of Tymochtee dolomite at temperatures ranging from 910 to 950{degree}C and a system pressure of 9.2 atm absolute. Alkali-vapor emission (Na and K) in the PFBC flue gas was determined by the analytical activated-bauxite sorber bed technique developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The test results showed that sodium is the major alkali-vapor species present in the PFBC flue gas, and that themore » level of sodium-vapor emission increases linearly with both Na and Cl contents in the coals. This suggests that the sodium-vapor emission results from direct vaporization of NaCl present in the coals. The measured alkali-vapor concentration (Na + K), 67 to 190 ppbW, is more than 2.5 times greater than the allowable alkali limit of 24 ppb for an industrial gas turbine. Combusting these coals in a PFBC for power generation may require developing a method to control alkali vapors.« less
  • Although the predominant use of coal is for combustion applications, more beneficial, reasonable and profitable uses may be as a resource for the production of chemicals, and materials, including activated carbon. Activated carbons represent a family of carbonaceous substances manufactured by processes that develop the carbon`s adsorptive properties. The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate that an activated carbon with good surface area and chemical properties could be produced from an Illinois coal.
  • Chemical analyses of 81 samples of coal suggested the occurrences, in many instances, of a separate zinc sulfide phase. Field investigations proved this, and a number of sphalerite samples were collected for study from coals in northeastern, southeastern, and northwestern Illinois. The highest concentration of sphalerite in Illinois coals is in northwestern Illinois where sphalerite is present in all three of the coals mined. The sphalerite is generally cadmium rich; ratios of zinc to cadmium in the sphalerite samples extracted from coals range from 48/1 to 358/1. Sphalerite occurs in coal principally as fillings in cleats (vertical fractures). Pyrite, quartz,more » kaolinite, and calcite are associated with the sphalerite. The paragenetic sequence began with a sulfide stage, continued with a silicate stage, and concluded with a carbonate stage. The sphalerite is epigenetic and was deposited slowly under conditions near equilibrium. The cleats provided channels in the coal along which the mineralizing solutions could move, and the coal in turn provided a suitable substrate for the bacterial reduction of sulfate to sulfide and/or a source of reduced sulfur. The sphalerite is readily removed from the coal by washing (separation by specific gravity techniques) and can be recovered. A zinc content as high as 5,350 ppm and cadmium content as high as 65 ppm, both on a whole coal basis, were observed. The economic recovery of these elements should be considered, especially when coal conversion processes are being planned.« less