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Title: Genetic Diversity Among Botulinum Neurotoxin Producing Clostridial Strains

Abstract

Clostridium botulinum is a taxonomic designation for many diverse anaerobic spore forming rod-shaped bacteria which have the common property of producing botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs). The BoNTs are exoneurotoxins that can cause severe paralysis and even death in humans and various other animal species. A collection of 174 C. botulinum strains were examined by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis and by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and BoNT genes to examine genetic diversity within this species. This collection contained representatives of each of the seven different serotypes of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT A-G). Analysis of the16S rRNA sequences confirmed earlier reports of at least four distinct genomic backgrounds (Groups I-IV) each of which has independently acquired one or more BoNT serotypes through horizontal gene transfer. AFLP analysis provided higher resolution, and can be used to further subdivide the four groups into sub-groups. Sequencing of the BoNT genes from serotypes A, B and E in multiple strains confirmed significant sequence variation within each serotype. Four distinct lineages within each of the BoNT A and B serotypes, and five distinct lineages of serotype E strains were identified. The nucleotide sequences of the seven serotypes of BoNT were compared and show varying degreesmore » of interrelatedness and recombination as has been previously noted for the NTNH gene which is linked to BoNT. These analyses contribute to the understanding of the evolution and phylogeny within this species and assist in the development of improved diagnostics and therapeutics for treatment of botulism.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
936685
Report Number(s):
UCRL-JRNL-222662
Journal ID: ISSN 0021-9193; JOBAAY; TRN: US200818%%1003
DOE Contract Number:  
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 189, no. 3, February 1, 2007, pp. 818-832
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 189; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-9193
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; 99 GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS; ANIMALS; BACTERIA; CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM; GENES; GENETICS; NUCLEOTIDES; RECOMBINATION; RESOLUTION; SPORES; STRAINS

Citation Formats

Hill, K K, Smith, T J, Helma, C H, Ticknor, L O, Foley, B T, Svennson, R T, Brown, J L, Johnson, E A, Smith, L A, Okinaka, R T, Jackson, P J, and Marks, J D. Genetic Diversity Among Botulinum Neurotoxin Producing Clostridial Strains. United States: N. p., 2006. Web.
Hill, K K, Smith, T J, Helma, C H, Ticknor, L O, Foley, B T, Svennson, R T, Brown, J L, Johnson, E A, Smith, L A, Okinaka, R T, Jackson, P J, & Marks, J D. Genetic Diversity Among Botulinum Neurotoxin Producing Clostridial Strains. United States.
Hill, K K, Smith, T J, Helma, C H, Ticknor, L O, Foley, B T, Svennson, R T, Brown, J L, Johnson, E A, Smith, L A, Okinaka, R T, Jackson, P J, and Marks, J D. Thu . "Genetic Diversity Among Botulinum Neurotoxin Producing Clostridial Strains". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/936685.
@article{osti_936685,
title = {Genetic Diversity Among Botulinum Neurotoxin Producing Clostridial Strains},
author = {Hill, K K and Smith, T J and Helma, C H and Ticknor, L O and Foley, B T and Svennson, R T and Brown, J L and Johnson, E A and Smith, L A and Okinaka, R T and Jackson, P J and Marks, J D},
abstractNote = {Clostridium botulinum is a taxonomic designation for many diverse anaerobic spore forming rod-shaped bacteria which have the common property of producing botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs). The BoNTs are exoneurotoxins that can cause severe paralysis and even death in humans and various other animal species. A collection of 174 C. botulinum strains were examined by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis and by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and BoNT genes to examine genetic diversity within this species. This collection contained representatives of each of the seven different serotypes of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT A-G). Analysis of the16S rRNA sequences confirmed earlier reports of at least four distinct genomic backgrounds (Groups I-IV) each of which has independently acquired one or more BoNT serotypes through horizontal gene transfer. AFLP analysis provided higher resolution, and can be used to further subdivide the four groups into sub-groups. Sequencing of the BoNT genes from serotypes A, B and E in multiple strains confirmed significant sequence variation within each serotype. Four distinct lineages within each of the BoNT A and B serotypes, and five distinct lineages of serotype E strains were identified. The nucleotide sequences of the seven serotypes of BoNT were compared and show varying degrees of interrelatedness and recombination as has been previously noted for the NTNH gene which is linked to BoNT. These analyses contribute to the understanding of the evolution and phylogeny within this species and assist in the development of improved diagnostics and therapeutics for treatment of botulism.},
doi = {},
journal = {Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 189, no. 3, February 1, 2007, pp. 818-832},
issn = {0021-9193},
number = 3,
volume = 189,
place = {United States},
year = {2006},
month = {7}
}