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Title: Compatibility Issues for a High Temperature Dual Coolant Blanket

Abstract

One proposed U.S. test blanket module (TBM) for ITER uses ferritic-martensitic alloys with both eutectic Pb-Li and He coolants at {approx}475 C. In order for this blanket concept to operate at higher temperatures ({approx}750 C) for a DEMO-type reactor, several Pb-Li compatibility issues need to be addressed. A SiC/SiC composite flow channel insert is proposed to reduce the steel dissolution rate (and the magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop). Prior capsule testing examined dense, high-purity SiC in Pb-Li at 800-1200 C and found detectable levels of Si in the Pb-Li after 2,000h at 1100 C and 1,000h at 1200 C. Current capsule experiments are examining several different SiC/SiC composite materials at 1000 C. Another issue involves Pb-Li transport between the first wall and heat exchanger. Aluminide coatings on type 316 stainless steel and Al-containing alloys capable of forming an external alumina scale have been studied in capsule experiments at 700 and 800 C for 1,000h. Model aluminide coatings made by chemical vapor deposition reduced the dissolution rate for 316SS at 800 C by a factor of 50.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. ORNL
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
931974
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: ANS 17th Topical Meeting on Fusion Energy, Albuquerque, NM, USA, 20061113, 20061115
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; COMPATIBILITY; COMPOSITE MATERIALS; COOLANTS; FIRST WALL; HEAT EXCHANGERS; STAINLESS STEELS; THERMONUCLEAR REACTORS; Liquid metal compatibility; Pb-Li; SiC/SiC; aluminide coatings; alumina

Citation Formats

Pint, Bruce A. Compatibility Issues for a High Temperature Dual Coolant Blanket. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Pint, Bruce A. Compatibility Issues for a High Temperature Dual Coolant Blanket. United States.
Pint, Bruce A. Mon . "Compatibility Issues for a High Temperature Dual Coolant Blanket". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_931974,
title = {Compatibility Issues for a High Temperature Dual Coolant Blanket},
author = {Pint, Bruce A},
abstractNote = {One proposed U.S. test blanket module (TBM) for ITER uses ferritic-martensitic alloys with both eutectic Pb-Li and He coolants at {approx}475 C. In order for this blanket concept to operate at higher temperatures ({approx}750 C) for a DEMO-type reactor, several Pb-Li compatibility issues need to be addressed. A SiC/SiC composite flow channel insert is proposed to reduce the steel dissolution rate (and the magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop). Prior capsule testing examined dense, high-purity SiC in Pb-Li at 800-1200 C and found detectable levels of Si in the Pb-Li after 2,000h at 1100 C and 1,000h at 1200 C. Current capsule experiments are examining several different SiC/SiC composite materials at 1000 C. Another issue involves Pb-Li transport between the first wall and heat exchanger. Aluminide coatings on type 316 stainless steel and Al-containing alloys capable of forming an external alumina scale have been studied in capsule experiments at 700 and 800 C for 1,000h. Model aluminide coatings made by chemical vapor deposition reduced the dissolution rate for 316SS at 800 C by a factor of 50.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}

Conference:
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  • Fusion reactor blanket and coolant compatibility tests are being conducted to aid in the selection and design of safe blanket and coolant systems for future fusion reactors. Results of scoping compatibility tests to date are reported for blanket material and water interactions at near operating temperatures. These tests indicate the quantitative hydrogen release, the maximum temperature and pressures produced and the rates of interactions for selected blanket materials.
  • Liquid metal compatibility issues are being investigated for two different test blanket modules involving either Li or Pb-17 at.%Li. A solution to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) problem for the V-Li concept may be attainable using multi-layer coatings or a flow channel insert with vanadium in contact with the flowing Li instead of a ceramic insulating layer. These strategies rely on the expected excellent compatibility of vanadium alloys which is being further investigated. For systems using Pb-17Li, capsule testing of SiC and various alloys is being conducted. Monolithic SiC specimens exposed for 1000 h in Pb-Li at 800 and 1100 {sup o}Cmore » showed no mass change after cleaning and no detectable increase in the Si content of the Pb-Li after the test. In order to investigate the behavior of corrosion resistant aluminide coatings, initial capsule testing at 700 {sup o}C has been used to establish baseline dissolution rates for 316 stainless steel, FeCrAl, Fe{sub 3}Al and NiAl. The samples containing Al showed significantly less mass loss than 316 stainless steel, suggesting that aluminide coatings will be beneficial in this temperature range.« less
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  • The US is proposing a prototype of a dual coolant liquid lead-lithium (DCLL) DEMO blanket concept for testing in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) as an ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM). Because safety considerations are an integral part of the design process to ensure that this TBM does not adversely impact the safety of ITER, a safety assessment has been conducted for this TBM and its ancillary systems as requested by the ITER project. Four events were selected by the ITER International Team (IT) to address specific reactor safety concerns, such as VV pressurization, confinement building pressure build-up, TBMmore » decay heat removal capability, tritium and activation products release from the TBM system, and hydrogen and heat production from chemical reactions. This paper summarizes the results of this safety assessment conducted with the MELCOR computer code.« less