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Title: CO2 balance of boreal, temperate, and tropical forests derived from a global database

Abstract

Forests sequester large amounts of atmospheric carbon. However, considerable uncertainties remain regarding the fate of this carbon over both short and long timescales. Relevant data to address these uncertainties have been and are being collected at many sites around the world, but synthesis of these data is still sparse. To facilitate synthesis activities, we have assembled a comprehensive global database for forest ecosystems, which includes carbon budget variables (fluxes and stocks), ecosystem traits (e.g. leaf area index, age) as well as ancillary site information such as management regime, climate and soil characteristics. This can be used to: quantify global, regional to biome-specific carbon-budgets, to re-examine established relationships, test emerging hypotheses about ecosystem functioning (e.g. a constant NEP to GPP), and provide benchmarks for model evaluations. Our synthesis highlighted that globally, gross primary production of forests benefited from higher temperatures and precipitation whereas net primary production saturated beyond a threshold of 1500 mm precipitation or a mean annual temperature of 10 C. The global pattern in NEP was found insensitive to climate and appears to be mainly determined by non-climatic conditions such as successional stage, management, site history and site disturbance. At the biome level, only the carbon fluxes in temperatemore » humid evergreen and temperate humid deciduous forests were sufficiently robust. All other biomes still need further study to reduce uncertainties in their carbon balance. Carbon budgets of boreal semi-arid and tropical semi-arid forests would benefit most from additional data inputs. Closing the CO2-balances of specific biomes required the introduction of closure terms. These closure terms were substantial for all biomes and suggested that to better close carbon balances, more data are needed especially on respiratory processes, advection and on non-CO2 carbon fluxes.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [3];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [3];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [12];  [5];  [13];  [14];  [15];  [3] more »;  [1];  [6];  [16];  [17];  [18];  [9];  [4];  [19];  [20];  [21];  [22];  [23];  [3];  [24];  [25];  [26];  [5];  [24];  [27];  [28];  [29];  [30];  [31];  [32];  [6];  [23];  [33];  [22];  [34];  [29];  [3];  [35];  [36];  [37];  [38];  [39];  [40];  [18];  [4];  [22];  [1] « less
  1. University of Antwerp
  2. Second University of Naples
  3. Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry
  4. University of Tuscia
  5. LSCE, Orme des Merisiers
  6. University of Edinburgh
  7. CNR-ISAFOM
  8. Faculte Universitaire des Sciences Agronomiques de Gembloux
  9. Technische Universitat Dresden
  10. University College, Dublin
  11. INRA Kourou - UMR EcoFog
  12. Tulane University
  13. Pennsylvania State University
  14. University of Illinois
  15. Universitate Amsterdam
  16. INRA EEF
  17. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Upsalla, Sweden
  18. University of Minnesota
  19. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)
  20. Center of Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh
  21. USDA Forest Service
  22. University of Helsinki
  23. Alterra
  24. Lund University, Sweden
  25. Finnish Meteorological institute
  26. Oregon State University
  27. Universita di Bologna
  28. Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
  29. Instituto Superior Tecnico, Portugal
  30. Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca
  31. University of California, Berkeley
  32. Bolzano, Agency for the Environment
  33. University of Oxford
  34. INRA EPHYSE
  35. University of New Hampshire
  36. CIRAD
  37. National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan
  38. CEAM, Valencia, Spain
  39. Joint Research Centre, Italy
  40. Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
931957
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Global Change Biology; Journal Volume: 13
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ADVECTION; BENCHMARKS; CARBON; CLIMATES; CLOSURES; ECOSYSTEMS; FORESTS; MANAGEMENT; PRECIPITATION; PRODUCTION; SOILS; SYNTHESIS; CARBON SEQUESTRATION

Citation Formats

Luyssaert, S., Inglima, I., Jung, M., Reichstein, Markus, Papale, D., Piao, S., Schulze, E.-D., Wingate, L., Matteucci, G., Aubinet, M., Beer, C., Bernhofer, C., Black, K. G., Bonal, D., Chambers, J., Ciais, P., Davis, Ken J., Delucia, Evan H., Dolman, A. J., Don, A., Gielen, B., Grace, John, Granier, A., Grelle, A., Griffis, T., Grunwald, T., Guidolotti, G., Hanson, P. J., Harding, R., Hollinger, D., Kolari, P., Kruijt, B., Kutsch, W., Lagergren, F., Laurila, T., Law, B., Le Maire, G., Lindroth, A., Magnani, F., Marek, M., Mateus, J., Migliavacca, M., Mission, L., Montagnani, L., Moncrief, J., Moors, E., Munger, J. W., Nikinmaa, E., Loustau, D., Pita, G., Rebmann, C., Richardson, A. D., Roupsard, O., Saigusa, N., Sanz, M. J., Seufert, G., Sorensen, L., Tang, J., Valentini, R., Vesala, T., and Janssens, I. A. CO2 balance of boreal, temperate, and tropical forests derived from a global database. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2007.01439.x.
Luyssaert, S., Inglima, I., Jung, M., Reichstein, Markus, Papale, D., Piao, S., Schulze, E.-D., Wingate, L., Matteucci, G., Aubinet, M., Beer, C., Bernhofer, C., Black, K. G., Bonal, D., Chambers, J., Ciais, P., Davis, Ken J., Delucia, Evan H., Dolman, A. J., Don, A., Gielen, B., Grace, John, Granier, A., Grelle, A., Griffis, T., Grunwald, T., Guidolotti, G., Hanson, P. J., Harding, R., Hollinger, D., Kolari, P., Kruijt, B., Kutsch, W., Lagergren, F., Laurila, T., Law, B., Le Maire, G., Lindroth, A., Magnani, F., Marek, M., Mateus, J., Migliavacca, M., Mission, L., Montagnani, L., Moncrief, J., Moors, E., Munger, J. W., Nikinmaa, E., Loustau, D., Pita, G., Rebmann, C., Richardson, A. D., Roupsard, O., Saigusa, N., Sanz, M. J., Seufert, G., Sorensen, L., Tang, J., Valentini, R., Vesala, T., & Janssens, I. A. CO2 balance of boreal, temperate, and tropical forests derived from a global database. United States. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2007.01439.x.
Luyssaert, S., Inglima, I., Jung, M., Reichstein, Markus, Papale, D., Piao, S., Schulze, E.-D., Wingate, L., Matteucci, G., Aubinet, M., Beer, C., Bernhofer, C., Black, K. G., Bonal, D., Chambers, J., Ciais, P., Davis, Ken J., Delucia, Evan H., Dolman, A. J., Don, A., Gielen, B., Grace, John, Granier, A., Grelle, A., Griffis, T., Grunwald, T., Guidolotti, G., Hanson, P. J., Harding, R., Hollinger, D., Kolari, P., Kruijt, B., Kutsch, W., Lagergren, F., Laurila, T., Law, B., Le Maire, G., Lindroth, A., Magnani, F., Marek, M., Mateus, J., Migliavacca, M., Mission, L., Montagnani, L., Moncrief, J., Moors, E., Munger, J. W., Nikinmaa, E., Loustau, D., Pita, G., Rebmann, C., Richardson, A. D., Roupsard, O., Saigusa, N., Sanz, M. J., Seufert, G., Sorensen, L., Tang, J., Valentini, R., Vesala, T., and Janssens, I. A. Mon . "CO2 balance of boreal, temperate, and tropical forests derived from a global database". United States. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2007.01439.x.
@article{osti_931957,
title = {CO2 balance of boreal, temperate, and tropical forests derived from a global database},
author = {Luyssaert, S. and Inglima, I. and Jung, M. and Reichstein, Markus and Papale, D. and Piao, S. and Schulze, E.-D. and Wingate, L. and Matteucci, G. and Aubinet, M. and Beer, C. and Bernhofer, C. and Black, K. G. and Bonal, D. and Chambers, J. and Ciais, P. and Davis, Ken J. and Delucia, Evan H. and Dolman, A. J. and Don, A. and Gielen, B. and Grace, John and Granier, A. and Grelle, A. and Griffis, T. and Grunwald, T. and Guidolotti, G. and Hanson, P. J. and Harding, R. and Hollinger, D. and Kolari, P. and Kruijt, B. and Kutsch, W. and Lagergren, F. and Laurila, T. and Law, B. and Le Maire, G. and Lindroth, A. and Magnani, F. and Marek, M. and Mateus, J. and Migliavacca, M. and Mission, L. and Montagnani, L. and Moncrief, J. and Moors, E. and Munger, J. W. and Nikinmaa, E. and Loustau, D. and Pita, G. and Rebmann, C. and Richardson, A. D. and Roupsard, O. and Saigusa, N. and Sanz, M. J. and Seufert, G. and Sorensen, L. and Tang, J. and Valentini, R. and Vesala, T. and Janssens, I. A.},
abstractNote = {Forests sequester large amounts of atmospheric carbon. However, considerable uncertainties remain regarding the fate of this carbon over both short and long timescales. Relevant data to address these uncertainties have been and are being collected at many sites around the world, but synthesis of these data is still sparse. To facilitate synthesis activities, we have assembled a comprehensive global database for forest ecosystems, which includes carbon budget variables (fluxes and stocks), ecosystem traits (e.g. leaf area index, age) as well as ancillary site information such as management regime, climate and soil characteristics. This can be used to: quantify global, regional to biome-specific carbon-budgets, to re-examine established relationships, test emerging hypotheses about ecosystem functioning (e.g. a constant NEP to GPP), and provide benchmarks for model evaluations. Our synthesis highlighted that globally, gross primary production of forests benefited from higher temperatures and precipitation whereas net primary production saturated beyond a threshold of 1500 mm precipitation or a mean annual temperature of 10 C. The global pattern in NEP was found insensitive to climate and appears to be mainly determined by non-climatic conditions such as successional stage, management, site history and site disturbance. At the biome level, only the carbon fluxes in temperate humid evergreen and temperate humid deciduous forests were sufficiently robust. All other biomes still need further study to reduce uncertainties in their carbon balance. Carbon budgets of boreal semi-arid and tropical semi-arid forests would benefit most from additional data inputs. Closing the CO2-balances of specific biomes required the introduction of closure terms. These closure terms were substantial for all biomes and suggested that to better close carbon balances, more data are needed especially on respiratory processes, advection and on non-CO2 carbon fluxes.},
doi = {10.1111/j.1365-2486.2007.01439.x},
journal = {Global Change Biology},
number = ,
volume = 13,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
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  • Fire strongly influences carbon cycling and storage in boreal forests. In the near-term, if global warming occurs, the frequency and intensity of fires in boreal forests are likely to increase significantly. A sensitivity analysis on the relationship between fire and carbon storage in the living-biomass and ground-layer compartments of boreal forests was performed to determine how the carbon stocks would be expected to change as a result of global warming. A model was developed to study this sensitivity. The model shows if the annual area burned in boreal forests increases by 50%, as predicted by some studies, then the amountmore » of carbon stored in the ground layer would decrease between 3.5 and 5.6 kg/m{sup 2}, and the amount of carbon stored in the living biomass would increase by 1.2 kg/m{sup 2}. There would be a net loss of carbon in boreal forests between 2.3 and 4.4 kg/m{sup 2}, or 27.1-51.9 Pg on a global scale. Because the carbon in the ground layer is lot more quickly than carbon is accumulated in living biomass, this could lead to a short-term release of carbon over the next 50-100 yr at a rate of 0.33-0.8 Pg/yr, dependent on the distribution of carbon between organic and mineral soil in the ground layer (which is presently not well-understood) and the increase in fire frequency caused by global warming. 57 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.« less
  • The role of temperate forests in the global carbon balance is difficult to determine because many uncertainties exist in the data, and many assumptions must be made in these determinations. Still, there is little doubt that increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} and global warming would have major effects on temperate forest ecosystems. Increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} may result in increases in photosynthesis, changes in water and nitrogen use efficiency, and changes in carbon allocation. Indirect effects of changes in global carbon balance on regional climate and on microenvironmental conditions, particularly temperature and moisture, may be more important then directmore » effects of increased CO{sub 2} on vegetation. Increased incidence of forest perturbations might also be expected. The evidence suggests that conditions favorable to forest growth and development may exist in the northern latitudes, while southern latitude forests may undergo drought stress. Current harvest of temperate and world forests contributes substantial amounts of carbon to the atmosphere, possibly as much as 3 gigatons (Gt) per year. Return of this carbon to forest storage may require decades. Forest managers should be aware of the global as well as local impact their management decisions will have on the atmospheric carbon balance of the ecosystems they oversee.« less
  • Soil water deficits are a key controller of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) in deciduous broadleaf forests. Mathematical models of forest NEP need to represent the processes by which this control is exerted if they are to be used to predict the impacts of changing hydrology on forest C stocks. The key processes controlling NEP during soil water deficits are hydraulic limitations to water transfer in soil, roots, stems and leaves that impose constraints on gross primary productivity (GPP). We compare five ecosystem models with different techniques to simulate these processes for their ability to model reduced latent versus sensible heatmore » fluxes, earlier diurnal declines in CO2 influxes and reduced soil CO2 effluxes during soil drying. Model accuracy was assessed using energy and CO2 fluxes measured by eddy covariance and surface chambers in a warm temperate and a cool boreal deciduous forest during a drying period. Diurnal declines in CO2 influxes during soil drying were consistently simulated by models in which soil drying lowered root and canopy water potentials ( c) and raised soil and root hydraulic resistances. Leaf stomatal conductance (gl), derived in these models from non-linear functions of c, then became more sensitive to diurnal changes in vapor pressure deficits (D). Diurnal declines in CO2 influxes could be simulated with comparable accuracy under most conditions by a model in which gl was empirically related to soil water potential and D, although these declines were sometimes not fully simulated. CO2 influxes declined too rapidly with diurnal rises in D in another model in which gl was calculated from CO2 fixation which was empirically related to soil water content. Divergences in modeled versus measured half-hourly or hourly CO2 exchange were also apparent in modeled versus measured annual GPP, net primary productivity (NPP) and NEP. The ability to distinguish among alternative algorithms for their accuracy in calculating CO2 and energy fluxes was often limited by uncertainty in the measurement of these fluxes using eddy covariance, especially when low wind speeds and stable boundary layers reduced atmospheric turbulence.« less