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Title: Costs of Harvesting, Storing in a Large Pile, and Transporting Corn Stover in a Wet Form

Abstract

Corn stover is potentially an attractive biomass resource, but must be stored if used to supply a biorefinery year-round. Based on experience with successfully storing water-saturated large piles of bagasse for the pulping industry, Atchison and Hettenhaus (2003) proposed that such a system can also be applied to corn stover. Regardless of the technical feasibility of this system, in this article we estimate the cost of harvesting corn stover in a single pass with corn grain, delivering the chopped biomass to a storage pile, storing the stover in a wet form in a large pile at 75% moisture in a 211,700-dry Mg facility within a radius of 24 km from the field, and transporting the stover 64 km to a biorefinery. Field-ground corn stover can be delivered to a biorefinery by rail for $55 to $61/dry Mg. Truck transport is more expensive, $71 to $77/dry Mg. To achieve a minimum cost in the system proposed by Atchison and Hettenhaus, it is necessary to field densify stover to 74 dry kg/m3, without losing combine field efficiency, have a large storage pile to spread fixed costs of storage over enough biomass, and use rail transportation. Compared to storage in an on-farm bunkermore » silo at $60/dry Mg, there are limited circumstances in which large pile storage has a cost advantage.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. ORNL
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
931889
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Engineering in Agriculture; Journal Volume: 23; Journal Issue: 4
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; AGRICULTURAL WASTES; BAGASSE; BIOMASS; EFFICIENCY; HARVESTING; MAIZE; MOISTURE; ROAD TRANSPORT; STORAGE; TRUCKS

Citation Formats

Turhollow Jr, Anthony F, and Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine. Costs of Harvesting, Storing in a Large Pile, and Transporting Corn Stover in a Wet Form. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.13031/2013.23478.
Turhollow Jr, Anthony F, & Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine. Costs of Harvesting, Storing in a Large Pile, and Transporting Corn Stover in a Wet Form. United States. doi:10.13031/2013.23478.
Turhollow Jr, Anthony F, and Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine. Mon . "Costs of Harvesting, Storing in a Large Pile, and Transporting Corn Stover in a Wet Form". United States. doi:10.13031/2013.23478.
@article{osti_931889,
title = {Costs of Harvesting, Storing in a Large Pile, and Transporting Corn Stover in a Wet Form},
author = {Turhollow Jr, Anthony F and Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine},
abstractNote = {Corn stover is potentially an attractive biomass resource, but must be stored if used to supply a biorefinery year-round. Based on experience with successfully storing water-saturated large piles of bagasse for the pulping industry, Atchison and Hettenhaus (2003) proposed that such a system can also be applied to corn stover. Regardless of the technical feasibility of this system, in this article we estimate the cost of harvesting corn stover in a single pass with corn grain, delivering the chopped biomass to a storage pile, storing the stover in a wet form in a large pile at 75% moisture in a 211,700-dry Mg facility within a radius of 24 km from the field, and transporting the stover 64 km to a biorefinery. Field-ground corn stover can be delivered to a biorefinery by rail for $55 to $61/dry Mg. Truck transport is more expensive, $71 to $77/dry Mg. To achieve a minimum cost in the system proposed by Atchison and Hettenhaus, it is necessary to field densify stover to 74 dry kg/m3, without losing combine field efficiency, have a large storage pile to spread fixed costs of storage over enough biomass, and use rail transportation. Compared to storage in an on-farm bunker silo at $60/dry Mg, there are limited circumstances in which large pile storage has a cost advantage.},
doi = {10.13031/2013.23478},
journal = {Applied Engineering in Agriculture},
number = 4,
volume = 23,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Investigation of innovative methods for collecting, handling, storing, and transporting corn stover for potential use for production of cellulosic ethanol.
  • Investigation of innovative methods for collecting, handling, storing, and transporting corn stover for potential use for production of cellulosic ethanol.
  • This study examines the impact of stochastic harvest field time on profit maximizing potential of corn cob/stover collection in North Dakota. Three harvest options are analyzed using mathematical programming models. Our findings show that under the first corn grain only harvest option, farmers are able to complete harvesting corn grain and achieve maximum net income in a fairly short amount of time with existing combine technology. However, under the second simultaneous corn grain and cob (one-pass) harvest option, farmers generate lower net income compared to the net income of the first option. This is due to the slowdown in combinemore » harvest capacity as a consequence of harvesting corn cobs. Under the third option of separate corn grain and stover (two-pass) harvest option, time allocation is the main challenge and our evidence shows that with limited harvest field time available, farmers find it optimal to allocate most of their time harvesting grain and then proceed to harvest and bale stover if time permits at the end of harvest season. The overall findings suggest is that it would be more economically efficient to allow a firm that is specialized in collecting biomass feedstock to participate in cob/stover harvest business.« less
  • We have studied rapid calibration models to predict the composition of a variety of biomass feedstocks by correlating near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic data to compositional data produced using traditional wet chemical analysis techniques. The rapid calibration models are developed using multivariate statistical analysis of the spectroscopic and wet chemical data. This work discusses the latest versions of the NIR calibration models for corn stover feedstock and dilute-acid pretreated corn stover. Measures of the calibration precision and uncertainty are presented. No statistically significant differences (p = 0.05) are seen between NIR calibration models built using different mathematical pretreatments. Finally, two common algorithmsmore » for building NIR calibration models are compared; no statistically significant differences (p = 0.05) are seen for the major constituents glucan, xylan, and lignin, but the algorithms did produce different predictions for total extractives. A single calibration model combining the corn stover feedstock and dilute-acid pretreated corn stover samples gave less satisfactory predictions than the separate models.« less