skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Proximal bodies in hypersonic flow

Abstract

Hypersonic flows involving two or more bodies travelling in close proximity to one another are encountered in several important situations, both natural and man-made. The present work seeks to investigate one aspect of the resulting flow problem by exploring the forces experienced by a secondary body when it is within the domain of influence of a primary body travelling at hypersonic speeds. An analytical methodology based on the blast wave analogy is developed and used to predict the secondary force coefficients for simple geometries in both two and three dimensions. When the secondary body is entirely inside the primary shocked region, the nature of the lateral force coefficient is found to depend strongly on the relative size of the two bodies. For two spheres, the methodology predicts that the secondary body will experience an exclusively attractive lateral force if the secondary diameter is larger than one-sixth the primary diameter. The analytical results are compared with those from numerical simulations and reasonable agreement is observed if an appropriate normalization for the lateral displacement is used. Results from a series of experiments in the T5 hypervelocity shock tunnel are also presented and compared with perfect-gas numerical simulations, with good agreement. A newmore » force-measurement technique for short-duration hypersonic facilities, enabling the experimental simulation of the proximal bodies problem, is described. This technique provides two independent means of measurement, and the agreement observed between the two gives a further degree of confidence in the results obtained.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2]
  1. ORNL
  2. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
931752
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Fluid Mechanics; Journal Volume: 1; Journal Issue: 590
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
97; 99 GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS//MATHEMATICS, COMPUTING, AND INFORMATION SCIENCE; DISTANCE; TWO-BODY PROBLEM; HYPERSONIC FLOW; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; SHOCK WAVES; Shock waves; theoretical analysis; numerical simulations; experiments

Citation Formats

Deiterding, Ralf, Laurence, Stuart J, and Hornung, Hans G. Proximal bodies in hypersonic flow. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Deiterding, Ralf, Laurence, Stuart J, & Hornung, Hans G. Proximal bodies in hypersonic flow. United States.
Deiterding, Ralf, Laurence, Stuart J, and Hornung, Hans G. Mon . "Proximal bodies in hypersonic flow". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_931752,
title = {Proximal bodies in hypersonic flow},
author = {Deiterding, Ralf and Laurence, Stuart J and Hornung, Hans G},
abstractNote = {Hypersonic flows involving two or more bodies travelling in close proximity to one another are encountered in several important situations, both natural and man-made. The present work seeks to investigate one aspect of the resulting flow problem by exploring the forces experienced by a secondary body when it is within the domain of influence of a primary body travelling at hypersonic speeds. An analytical methodology based on the blast wave analogy is developed and used to predict the secondary force coefficients for simple geometries in both two and three dimensions. When the secondary body is entirely inside the primary shocked region, the nature of the lateral force coefficient is found to depend strongly on the relative size of the two bodies. For two spheres, the methodology predicts that the secondary body will experience an exclusively attractive lateral force if the secondary diameter is larger than one-sixth the primary diameter. The analytical results are compared with those from numerical simulations and reasonable agreement is observed if an appropriate normalization for the lateral displacement is used. Results from a series of experiments in the T5 hypervelocity shock tunnel are also presented and compared with perfect-gas numerical simulations, with good agreement. A new force-measurement technique for short-duration hypersonic facilities, enabling the experimental simulation of the proximal bodies problem, is described. This technique provides two independent means of measurement, and the agreement observed between the two gives a further degree of confidence in the results obtained.},
doi = {},
journal = {Journal of Fluid Mechanics},
number = 590,
volume = 1,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Parameters of the axisymmetric flow around bodies with different bluntness are compared in the case of constant energy supply to the main hypersonic flow. Flow structures, drag coefficients, and expenditure of energy on overcoming drag are analyzed with the effect of thermal energy on the flow taken into account for different bodies with equal volume.
  • blood flow in the proximal femur was measured in 45 healthy male and female adults by means of a Xe-133 washout method. On the basis of a two-compartment exponential model, blood flow was calculated assuming that the compartments were hematopoietic (red) marrow and nonhematopoietic tissues of bone. Between the ages of 20 and 55 the bone perfusion was 8.3 +/- 1.4 (1 s.d.) ml/100 g/min, decreasing thereafter in older patients. During the same period the red-marrow blood flow (RMBF) decreased linearly: RMBF (ml/100 g/min) . -0.14 x age + 24.5. The nonhematopoietic bone perfusion changed like the bone perfusion. Themore » fractional masses of red marrow and nonhematopoietic tissues of bone in the greater trochanteric region of the femur were determined morphometrically from the bone biopsies of seven adult cadavers. They agreed with the values estimated by the Xe-133 washout method. The blood-flow values will be used as reference values for the Xe-133 bone circulation method.« less
  • Blood flow in the proximal femur was measured in 45 healthy male and female adults by means of a Xe-133 washout method. On the basis of a two-compartment exponential model, blood flow was calculated assuming that the compartments were hematopoietic (red) marrow and nonhematopoietic tissues of bone. Between the ages of 20 and 55 the bone perfusion was 8.2 +/- 1.4 (1 s.d.) ml/100g/min, decreasing thereafter in older patients. During the same period the red-marrow blood flow (RMBF) decreased linearly: RMBF (ml/100g/min) = -0.14 x age + 24.5. The nonhematopoietic bone perfusion changed like the bone perfusion. The fractional massesmore » of red marrow and nonhematopoietic tissues of bone in the greater trochanteric region of the femur were determined morphometrically from the bone biopsies of seven adult cadavers. They agreed with the values estimated by the Xe-133 washout method. The blood-flow values will be used as reference values for the Xe-133 bone circulation method.« less