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Title: Investigation of Pb-Li Compatibility Issues for the Dual Coolant Blanket Concept

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. ORNL
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
931620
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Nuclear Materials; Journal Volume: 367; Journal Issue: 2
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Pint, Bruce A, Moser, Jeremy L, and Tortorelli, Peter F. Investigation of Pb-Li Compatibility Issues for the Dual Coolant Blanket Concept. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2007.03.206.
Pint, Bruce A, Moser, Jeremy L, & Tortorelli, Peter F. Investigation of Pb-Li Compatibility Issues for the Dual Coolant Blanket Concept. United States. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2007.03.206.
Pint, Bruce A, Moser, Jeremy L, and Tortorelli, Peter F. Mon . "Investigation of Pb-Li Compatibility Issues for the Dual Coolant Blanket Concept". United States. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2007.03.206.
@article{osti_931620,
title = {Investigation of Pb-Li Compatibility Issues for the Dual Coolant Blanket Concept},
author = {Pint, Bruce A and Moser, Jeremy L and Tortorelli, Peter F},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.jnucmat.2007.03.206},
journal = {Journal of Nuclear Materials},
number = 2,
volume = 367,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • An attractive blanket concept for the fusion reactor is the dual coolant Pb-17Li liquid (DCLL) breeder design. Reduced activation ferritic steel (RAFS) is used as the structural material. Helium is used to cool the first wall and blanket structure, and the self-cooled breeder Pb-17Li is circulated for power conversion and for tritium breeding. A SiCf/SiC composite insert is used as the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) insulation to reduce the impact from the MHD pressure drop of the circulating Pb-17Li and as the thermal insulator to separate the high temperature Pb-17Li from the helium cooled RAFS structure. For the reference tokamak power reactormore » design, this blanket concept has the potential of satisfying the design limits of RAFS while allowing the feasibility of having a high Pb-17Li outlet temperture of 700C. We have identified critical issues for the concept, some of which inlude the first wall design, the assessment of MHD effectrs with the SiC-composite flow coolant insert, and the extraction and control of the bred tritium from the Pb-17Li breeder. R&D programs have been proposed to address these issues. At the same time, we have proposed a test plan for the DCLL ITER-Test Blanket Module program.« less
  • The dual-coolant lead-lithium, or DCLL, blanket concept is of strong interest in the US fusion technology program. In the DCLL blanket, the flow channel insert (FCI) is a critical component. FCIs must have low electrical and thermal conductivity and be compatible with lead-lithium eutectic alloy (Pb-17Li) at elevated temperatures. FCIs must retain structural integrity and desirable properties even under irradiation and large temperature gradients during operation. FCIs must not fail in such a way that Pb-17Li enters the FCI and changes its electrical or thermal conductivity significantly. Another important issue for the DCLL is the development of a suitable tritiummore » extraction from the Pb-17Li to achieve low tritium partial pressure, thus facilitating decisive tritium control. In this paper, the state of DCLL development in the US is presented including recent design modifications and results from recent R&D efforts. Such R&D includes the progress on development and property quantification of SiC/SiC composites and SiC foams as candidate FCI materials; Pb-17Li material capability and infiltration studies; simulations of MHD Pb-17Li flow characteristics and of resultant temperature distributions; and the analysis of FCI stress states based on these thermal loads. In addition, tritium extraction from Pb-17Li based on a vacuum permeator concept is shown to have the potential to achieve the desired tritium control. A discussion of DCLL optimization and unresolved DCLL issues and future R&D needs is also presented.« less
  • One proposed U.S. test blanket module (TBM) for ITER uses ferritic-martensitic alloys with both eutectic Pb-Li and He coolants at {approx}475 C. In order for this blanket concept to operate at higher temperatures ({approx}750 C) for a DEMO-type reactor, several Pb-Li compatibility issues need to be addressed. A SiC/SiC composite flow channel insert is proposed to reduce the steel dissolution rate (and the magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop). Prior capsule testing examined dense, high-purity SiC in Pb-Li at 800-1200 C and found detectable levels of Si in the Pb-Li after 2,000h at 1100 C and 1,000h at 1200 C. Current capsule experimentsmore » are examining several different SiC/SiC composite materials at 1000 C. Another issue involves Pb-Li transport between the first wall and heat exchanger. Aluminide coatings on type 316 stainless steel and Al-containing alloys capable of forming an external alumina scale have been studied in capsule experiments at 700 and 800 C for 1,000h. Model aluminide coatings made by chemical vapor deposition reduced the dissolution rate for 316SS at 800 C by a factor of 50.« less
  • Concept of arrangement and function of ITER blanket is proposed that was mathematically modeled wtih optimizing actions of eutectics properties (positive and negative ones; their enhancement and suppression). The main concept feature is the arrangement of eutectics in blanket resulting in a continuous layer not less than 0.5 m thick, all-sided enclosure of plasma chamber and extraction of tritium by degassing directly in blanket. The paper discusses the results of experimental studies on kinetics of tritium degassing, particularly, the revealed strong influence of surface film and the method of eliminating this effect.
  • An attractive blanket concept for the fusion reactor is the dual coolant Pb-17Li liquid (DCLL) breeder design. Reduced activation ferritic steel (RAFS) is used as the structural material. Helium is used to cool the first wall and blanket structure, and the self-cooled breeder Pb-17LI is circulated for power conversion and for tritium breeding. A SiCf/SiC composite insert is used as the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) insulation to reduce the impact from the MHD pressure drop of the circulating Ph-17Li and as the thermal insulator to separate the high temperature Pb-17Li from the helium cooled RAFS structure.