skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination

Abstract

The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid identification of practical and effective decontamination approaches, this paper reviews pathways of CWA degradation by natural means as well as those resulting from deliberately applied solutions and technologies; these pathways and technologies are compared and contrasted. We then review various technologies, both traditional and recent, with some emphasis on decontamination materials used for surfaces that are difficult to clean. Discussion is limited to the major threat CWA, namely sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate), and the G-series nerve agents. The principal G-agents are GA (tabun, ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), GB (sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and GD (soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). The chemical decontamination pathways of each agent are outlined, with some discussion of intermediate and final degradation product toxicity. In all cases, and regardless of the CWA degradation pathway chosen for decontamination, it will be necessary to collect and analyze pertinent environmentalmore » samples during the treatment phase to confirm attainment of clearance levels.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [3]
  1. ORNL
  2. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  3. U.S. Army Environmental Center
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Work for Others (WFO)
OSTI Identifier:
931605
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Current Organic Chemistry; Journal Volume: 11; Journal Issue: 3
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE; BRASSICA; CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS; CLEARANCE; DECONTAMINATION; MILITARY EQUIPMENT; NERVES; PERSONNEL; PLANNING; SECURITY; STOCKPILES; SULFUR; TOXICITY

Citation Formats

Talmage, Sylvia Smith, Watson, Annetta Paule, Hauschild, Veronique, Munro, Nancy B, and King, J. Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.2174/138527207779940892.
Talmage, Sylvia Smith, Watson, Annetta Paule, Hauschild, Veronique, Munro, Nancy B, & King, J. Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination. United States. doi:10.2174/138527207779940892.
Talmage, Sylvia Smith, Watson, Annetta Paule, Hauschild, Veronique, Munro, Nancy B, and King, J. Thu . "Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination". United States. doi:10.2174/138527207779940892.
@article{osti_931605,
title = {Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination},
author = {Talmage, Sylvia Smith and Watson, Annetta Paule and Hauschild, Veronique and Munro, Nancy B and King, J.},
abstractNote = {The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid identification of practical and effective decontamination approaches, this paper reviews pathways of CWA degradation by natural means as well as those resulting from deliberately applied solutions and technologies; these pathways and technologies are compared and contrasted. We then review various technologies, both traditional and recent, with some emphasis on decontamination materials used for surfaces that are difficult to clean. Discussion is limited to the major threat CWA, namely sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate), and the G-series nerve agents. The principal G-agents are GA (tabun, ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), GB (sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and GD (soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). The chemical decontamination pathways of each agent are outlined, with some discussion of intermediate and final degradation product toxicity. In all cases, and regardless of the CWA degradation pathway chosen for decontamination, it will be necessary to collect and analyze pertinent environmental samples during the treatment phase to confirm attainment of clearance levels.},
doi = {10.2174/138527207779940892},
journal = {Current Organic Chemistry},
number = 3,
volume = 11,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Thu Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}