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Title: Evolving Plans for a USA-National Phenology Network (USA-NPN)

 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9]
  1. U.S. Geological Survey and University of Arizona
  2. University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
  3. University of Arizona
  4. University of Montana
  5. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
  6. National Park Service
  7. University of California, Santa Barbara
  8. USGS Flagstaff Science Center
  9. ORNL
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program
OSTI Identifier:
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: EOS Transactions, American Geophysical Union; Journal Volume: 88; Journal Issue: 19
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Betancourt, Julio, Schwartz, Mark D, Breshears, David D, Brewer, Carol A, Frazer, Gary, Gross, John E, Mazer, Susan J, Reed, Bradley C, and Wilson, Bruce E. Evolving Plans for a USA-National Phenology Network (USA-NPN). United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1029/2007EO190007.
Betancourt, Julio, Schwartz, Mark D, Breshears, David D, Brewer, Carol A, Frazer, Gary, Gross, John E, Mazer, Susan J, Reed, Bradley C, & Wilson, Bruce E. Evolving Plans for a USA-National Phenology Network (USA-NPN). United States. doi:10.1029/2007EO190007.
Betancourt, Julio, Schwartz, Mark D, Breshears, David D, Brewer, Carol A, Frazer, Gary, Gross, John E, Mazer, Susan J, Reed, Bradley C, and Wilson, Bruce E. Mon . "Evolving Plans for a USA-National Phenology Network (USA-NPN)". United States. doi:10.1029/2007EO190007.
title = {Evolving Plans for a USA-National Phenology Network (USA-NPN)},
author = {Betancourt, Julio and Schwartz, Mark D and Breshears, David D and Brewer, Carol A and Frazer, Gary and Gross, John E and Mazer, Susan J and Reed, Bradley C and Wilson, Bruce E},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1029/2007EO190007},
journal = {EOS Transactions, American Geophysical Union},
number = 19,
volume = 88,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
  • Adult caddisflies were sampled on the Wahluke Wildlife Area and Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge subunits of the newly created (2000) Hanford Reach National Monument using 15-watt ''black lights'' from April 2002 through April 2003. A diverse fauna consisting of nine families, 21 genera, and 33 species were collected. Protoptila Coloma Ross, Agraylea multipunctata Curtis, Hydroptila xera Ross, Ceraclea alagma (Ross), Nectopsych Iahontanensis Haddock Oecetis cinerascens (Hagen), and Ylodes reuteri (MacLachlan) represent new records for Washington State. Species composition and phenology are presented in tabular form.
  • Imagine a national system with the ability to quickly identify forested areas under attack from insects or disease. Such an early warning system might minimize surprises such as the explosion of caterpillars referred to in the quotation to the left. Moderate resolution (ca. 500m) remote sensing repeated at frequent (ca. weekly) intervals could power such a monitoring system that would respond in near real-time. An ideal warning system would be national in scope, automated, able to improve its prognostic ability with experience, and would provide regular map updates online in familiar and accessible formats. Such a goal is quite ambitiousmore » - analyzing vegetation change weekly at a national scale with moderate resolution is a daunting task. The foremost challenge is discerning unusual or unexpected disturbances from the normal backdrop of seasonal and annual changes in vegetation conditions. A historical perspective is needed to define a 'baseline' for expected, normal behavior against which detected changes can be correctly interpreted. It would be necessary to combine temperature, precipitation, soils, and topographic information with the remotely sensed data to discriminate and interpret the changing vegetation conditions on the ground. Conterminous national coverage implies huge data volumes, even at a moderate resolution (250-500m), and likely requires a supercomputing capability. Finally, such a national warning system must carefully balance the rate of successful threat detection with false positives. Since 2005, the USDA Forest Service has partnered with the NASA Stennis Space Center and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop methods for monitoring environmental threats, including native insects and diseases, wildfire, invasive pests and pathogens, tornados, hurricanes, and hail. These tools will be instrumental in helping the Forest Service's two Environmental Threat Assessment Centers better meet their Congressional mandate to help track the health of the Nation's forests and rangelands. We envision two scales of forest monitoring: (1) a strategic, satellite-based monitoring of broad regions to identify particular locations where threats are suspected (i.e., early warning), and (2) a fine-scale, tactical tier consisting of airborne overflights and on-the-ground monitoring to check the validity of warnings from the upper tier. The tactical tier is already largely in place within the Forest Service and its State collaborators, consisting of aerial detection surveys (sketch mapping from aircraft), ground surveys, and trapping programs. However, these efforts are expensive and labor-intensive, can be dangerous, and may not provide sufficient broad-area coverage. Far from replacing the tactical tier, the national system will rely on the finer-scale efforts to confirm, validate, and attribute causes of detected forest disturbances. One important objective of the national warning system will be to help direct the focus of the tactical tier, making their efforts more cost efficient and effective.« less
  • Carbon Flux Phenology (CFP) can affect the interannual variation in Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. In this paper, we proposed a methodology to estimate CFP metrics with satellite-derived Land Surface Phenology (LSP) metrics and climate drivers for 4 biomes (i.e., deciduous broadleaf forest, evergreen needleleaf forest, grasslands and croplands), using 159 site-years of NEE and climate data from 32 AmeriFlux sites and MODIS vegetation index time-series data. LSP metrics combined with optimal climate drivers can explain the variability in Start of Carbon Uptake (SCU) by more than 70% and End of Carbon Uptakemore » (ECU) by more than 60%. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the estimations was within 8.5 days for both SCU and ECU. The estimation performance for this methodology was primarily dependent on the optimal combination of the LSP retrieval methods, the explanatory climate drivers, the biome types, and the specific CFP metric. In conclusion, this methodology has a potential for allowing extrapolation of CFP metrics for biomes with a distinct and detectable seasonal cycle over large areas, based on synoptic multi-temporal optical satellite data and climate data.« less
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  • We propose a scale-free network similar to Barabasi-Albert networks but with two different types of edges. This model is based on the idea that in many cases there are more than one kind of link in a network and when a new node enters the network both old nodes and different kinds of links compete to obtain it. The degree distribution of both the total degree and the degree of each type of edge is analyzed and found to be scale-free. Simulations are shown to confirm these results.