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Title: Polychromatic Microbeam Diffraction Characterization of Individual ZnO Nanostructures

Abstract

We have used the focused, polychromatic beam available at sector 34 of the APS to characterize the local lattice structure and perfection of several different forms of ZnO meso- and nano-structures. Using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors for white-beam focusing, we have developed scanning x-ray techniques capable of mapping the spatially-resolved lattice structure, strain and composition. Off-axis undulator radiation is routinely focused to ~0.5 mm and beams as small as 90 nm have been demonstrated. Laue diffraction patterns are collected using a CCD area detector, and computer analysis provides spatial maps of the crystal phase, grain orientations (texture), and the local strain tensor. We have demonstrated the ability to map the structure of individual meso- and nano-structures using ZnO fabricated in several different shapes: rods, belts and tapered styluses. TEM samples serve as ideal x-ray microdiffraction samples due to the low background signal. Even when mounted on a relatively-thick crystal substrate, full diffraction patterns can be measured from ZnO rods as narrow as 200 nm diameter. We find that all of the ZnO structures have a facetted, hexagonal crystal structure, with the c-axis often along the rod axis. Larger diameter rods are essentially perfect single crystals, wheras thinner rods show a high degreemore » of flexibility and hence large local mosaic spread along the rod axis. For stylus samples, the tapered region where the diameter decreases remains a single crystal.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [4];  [5];  [1];  [1]
  1. ORNL
  2. Carnegie Institution of Washington
  3. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)
  4. University of Florida, Gainesville
  5. University of Florida
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
931447
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Fifth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation in Materials Science (SRMS-5), Chicago, IL, USA, 20060730, 20060802
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; DIFFRACTION; GRAIN ORIENTATION; NANOSTRUCTURES; RADIATIONS; SYNCHROTRON RADIATION; WIGGLER MAGNETS

Citation Formats

Budai, John D, Yang, Wenge, Liu, W., Tischler, Jonathan Zachary, Pan, Zhengwei, Heo, YW, Norton, David P., Larson, Ben C, and Ice, Gene E. Polychromatic Microbeam Diffraction Characterization of Individual ZnO Nanostructures. United States: N. p., 2006. Web.
Budai, John D, Yang, Wenge, Liu, W., Tischler, Jonathan Zachary, Pan, Zhengwei, Heo, YW, Norton, David P., Larson, Ben C, & Ice, Gene E. Polychromatic Microbeam Diffraction Characterization of Individual ZnO Nanostructures. United States.
Budai, John D, Yang, Wenge, Liu, W., Tischler, Jonathan Zachary, Pan, Zhengwei, Heo, YW, Norton, David P., Larson, Ben C, and Ice, Gene E. Sun . "Polychromatic Microbeam Diffraction Characterization of Individual ZnO Nanostructures". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_931447,
title = {Polychromatic Microbeam Diffraction Characterization of Individual ZnO Nanostructures},
author = {Budai, John D and Yang, Wenge and Liu, W. and Tischler, Jonathan Zachary and Pan, Zhengwei and Heo, YW and Norton, David P. and Larson, Ben C and Ice, Gene E},
abstractNote = {We have used the focused, polychromatic beam available at sector 34 of the APS to characterize the local lattice structure and perfection of several different forms of ZnO meso- and nano-structures. Using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors for white-beam focusing, we have developed scanning x-ray techniques capable of mapping the spatially-resolved lattice structure, strain and composition. Off-axis undulator radiation is routinely focused to ~0.5 mm and beams as small as 90 nm have been demonstrated. Laue diffraction patterns are collected using a CCD area detector, and computer analysis provides spatial maps of the crystal phase, grain orientations (texture), and the local strain tensor. We have demonstrated the ability to map the structure of individual meso- and nano-structures using ZnO fabricated in several different shapes: rods, belts and tapered styluses. TEM samples serve as ideal x-ray microdiffraction samples due to the low background signal. Even when mounted on a relatively-thick crystal substrate, full diffraction patterns can be measured from ZnO rods as narrow as 200 nm diameter. We find that all of the ZnO structures have a facetted, hexagonal crystal structure, with the c-axis often along the rod axis. Larger diameter rods are essentially perfect single crystals, wheras thinner rods show a high degree of flexibility and hence large local mosaic spread along the rod axis. For stylus samples, the tapered region where the diameter decreases remains a single crystal.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}

Conference:
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  • Dislocation structures in deformed metals produce broad asymmetric diffraction line profiles. During analysis, these profiles are generally separated into two nearly symmetric subprofiles corresponding to diffraction by dislocation cell walls and cell interiors. These subprofiles are then interpreted using complex models of dislocation-based line broadening. Until now, it has not been possible to test the many assumptions that are made in such an analysis. Here, depth-resolved microbeam diffraction was used to measure diffraction line profiles from numerous individual dislocation cell walls and cell interiors in a heavily deformed Cu single crystal. Summing these profiles directly constructed the cell-interior and cell-wallmore » subprofiles that have been approximated in the line profile analysis literature for the past 30 years. Direct comparison between the reconstructed subprofiles and the macroscopic asymmetric line profile from the same sample allows the first direct tests of many of the assumptions that have been used for interpreting these X-ray measurements.« less
  • Semiconductor nanostructures exhibit unique properties distinct from their bulk counterparts by virtue of nanoscale dimensions; in particular, exceptionally large surface area-to-volume ratios relative to that of the bulk produce variations in surface state populations that have numerous consequences on materials properties. Of the low-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures, nanowires offer a unique prospect in nanoscale optoelectronics due to their one-dimensional architecture. Already, many devices based upon individual nanowires have been demonstrated, but questions about how nano-size and structural variations affect the underlying materials properties still remain unanswered. Here, we focus on understanding the growth mechanism and kinetics of ZnO nanowires and relatedmore » nanowalls, and their effects on nanoscale structural and optical properties.« less
  • Polychromatic microdiffraction is an emerging tool for mapping local crystal structure with submicron three-dimensional resolution. The method is sensitive to the local crystal phase, crystallographic orientation, elastic strain, and lattice curvature. For many materials it is also nondestructive, which allows for unique experiments that probe how particular structural configurations evolve during processing and service. This capability opens up the possibility of testing and guiding theories without the limitations imposed by destructive techniques, surface-limited measurements or ensemble averages. This new capability will impact long-standing issues of materials science ranging from the factors that control anisotropic materials deformation to factors that influencemore » grain growth, grain boundary migration, electromigration and stress driven materials evolution. Such mesoscopic phenomena are at the heart of virtually all materials processing and form the basis for modern materials engineering. Here we describe the state-of-the-art, and discuss new instrumentation with the promise of better sensitivity and better real and reciprocal space resolution. Example science and future research opportunities are described.« less