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Title: Titanium Nitride Epitaxy on Tungsten (100) by Sublimation Crystal Growth

Abstract

Titanium nitride crystals were grown from titanium nitride powder on tungsten by the sublimation-recondensation technique. The bright golden TiN crystals displayed a variety of shapes including cubes, truncated tetrahedrons, truncated octahedrons, and tetrahedrons bounded by (111) and (100) crystal planes. The TiN crystals formed regular, repeated patterns within individual W grains that suggested epitaxy. X-ray diffraction and electron backscattering diffraction revealed that the tungsten foil was highly textured with a preferred foil normal of (100) and confirmed that the TiN particles deposited epitaxially with the orientation TiN(100)/W(100) and TiN[100]/W[110], that is, the unit cells of the TiN crystals were rotated 45{sup o} with respect to the tungsten. Because of its larger coefficient of thermal expansion compared to W, upon cooling from the growth temperature, the TiN crystals were under in-plane tensile strain, causing many of the TiN crystals to crack.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. Kansas State University
  2. ORNL
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shared Research Equipment Collaborative Research Center
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
931308
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Materials Research Society, Boston, MA, USA, 20061127, 20061127
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; TITANIUM NITRIDES; CRYSTAL GROWTH; SUBLIMATION; THERMAL EXPANSION; SUBSTRATES; TUNGSTEN; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; STRAINS; Epitaxy; TiN; crystallographic orientation; electron backscatter diffraction

Citation Formats

Mercurio, Lisa, Du, Li, Edgar, J H, and Kenik, Edward A. Titanium Nitride Epitaxy on Tungsten (100) by Sublimation Crystal Growth. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Mercurio, Lisa, Du, Li, Edgar, J H, & Kenik, Edward A. Titanium Nitride Epitaxy on Tungsten (100) by Sublimation Crystal Growth. United States.
Mercurio, Lisa, Du, Li, Edgar, J H, and Kenik, Edward A. Mon . "Titanium Nitride Epitaxy on Tungsten (100) by Sublimation Crystal Growth". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_931308,
title = {Titanium Nitride Epitaxy on Tungsten (100) by Sublimation Crystal Growth},
author = {Mercurio, Lisa and Du, Li and Edgar, J H and Kenik, Edward A},
abstractNote = {Titanium nitride crystals were grown from titanium nitride powder on tungsten by the sublimation-recondensation technique. The bright golden TiN crystals displayed a variety of shapes including cubes, truncated tetrahedrons, truncated octahedrons, and tetrahedrons bounded by (111) and (100) crystal planes. The TiN crystals formed regular, repeated patterns within individual W grains that suggested epitaxy. X-ray diffraction and electron backscattering diffraction revealed that the tungsten foil was highly textured with a preferred foil normal of (100) and confirmed that the TiN particles deposited epitaxially with the orientation TiN(100)/W(100) and TiN[100]/W[110], that is, the unit cells of the TiN crystals were rotated 45{sup o} with respect to the tungsten. Because of its larger coefficient of thermal expansion compared to W, upon cooling from the growth temperature, the TiN crystals were under in-plane tensile strain, causing many of the TiN crystals to crack.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}

Conference:
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  • The sublimation-recondensation growth of titanium nitride crystal with N/Ti ratio of 0.99 on tungsten substrate is reported. The growth rate dependence on temperature and pressure was determined, and the calculated activation energy is 775.8 29.8kJ/mol. The lateral and vertical growth rates changed with the time of growth and the fraction of the tungsten substrate surface covered. The orientation relationship of TiN (001) || W (001) with TiN [100] || W [110], a 45o angle between TiN [100] and W [100], occurs not only for TiN crystals deposited on W (001) textured tungsten but also for TiN crystals deposited on randomlymore » orientated tungsten. This study demonstrates that this preferred orientational relationship minimizes the lattice mismatch between the TiN and tungsten.« less
  • Thick (up to 1 mm) AlN-SiC alloy crystals were grown on off-axis Si-face 6H-SiC (0001) substrates by the sublimation-recondensation method from a mixture of AlN and SiC powders at 1860-1990 C in a N2 atmosphere. The color of the crystals changed from clear to dark green with increasing growth temperature. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed an AlN-SiC alloy was formed with the wurtzite structure and good homogeneity. Three broad peaks were detected in the Raman spectra, with one of those related to an AlN-like and another one to a SiC-like mode, both shifted relative to their usual positionsmore » in the binary compounds, and the third with possible contributions from both AlN and SiC. Scanning Auger microanalysis (SAM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) demonstrated the alloy crystals had an approximate composition of (AlN)0.75(SiC)0.25 with a stoichiometric ratio of Al:N and Si:C. The substrate misorientation ensured a two-dimensional growth mode confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).« less
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