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Title: Formation and Morphological Stability of NiSi in the Presence of W, Ti, and Ta Alloying Elements

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) National Synchrotron Light Source
Sponsoring Org.:
Doe - Office Of Science
OSTI Identifier:
930657
Report Number(s):
BNL-81134-2008-JA
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-98CH10886
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 101
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
national synchrotron light source

Citation Formats

Deduytsche,D., Detavernier, C., Van Meirhaeghe, R., Jordan-Sweet, J., and Lavoie, C.. Formation and Morphological Stability of NiSi in the Presence of W, Ti, and Ta Alloying Elements. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2433133.
Deduytsche,D., Detavernier, C., Van Meirhaeghe, R., Jordan-Sweet, J., & Lavoie, C.. Formation and Morphological Stability of NiSi in the Presence of W, Ti, and Ta Alloying Elements. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2433133.
Deduytsche,D., Detavernier, C., Van Meirhaeghe, R., Jordan-Sweet, J., and Lavoie, C.. Mon . "Formation and Morphological Stability of NiSi in the Presence of W, Ti, and Ta Alloying Elements". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2433133.
@article{osti_930657,
title = {Formation and Morphological Stability of NiSi in the Presence of W, Ti, and Ta Alloying Elements},
author = {Deduytsche,D. and Detavernier, C. and Van Meirhaeghe, R. and Jordan-Sweet, J. and Lavoie, C.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1063/1.2433133},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = ,
volume = 101,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • The formation and degradation of NiSi films has been studied when elements with a high melting point (W, Ta, and Ti) were added to pure Ni films as an alloying element. In situ techniques were used to characterize the phase stability and the morphological stability of the NiSi layers. Depending on the concentration of the alloying element, two distinct regimes could be distinguished. First, the addition of a small quantity of an alloying element (e.g., <10 vol % W) had little impact on the formation of NiSi, but significantly improved the morphological stability. In some cases, the agglomeration temperature wasmore » increased by 100 degree sign C. Second, for higher concentrations (e.g., <10 vol % W), no crystalline metal rich phases (Ni{sub x}Si{sub y}with x>y) could be observed prior to NiSi formation. Furthermore, a significant increase was observed of the apparent activation energy for NiSi formation.« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • The morphological stability of NiSi is investigated when 40% of Si is mixed into an as deposited 10 nm Ni film. When annealing at 3?C/s, scanning electron microscopy images and in situ sheet-resistance measurements show that NiSi agglomeration is delayed by more than 100?C. In situ x-ray diffraction reveals that NiSi grows from an unusual transient hexagonal ?-nickel-silicide phase. The significant improvement of the NiSi film's morphological stability can be related to its microstructure, with large grains and a strong texture. This peculiar microstructure is compared to the microstructure of the ?-nickel-silicide precursor by electron backscattering diffraction and pole figures.
  • Of the title compounds 28 were prepared for the first time. They crystallize with a cubic structure (space group Fd3m, Z=8) similar to the structures of Mg{sub 3}Cr{sub 2}Al{sub 18} and ZrZn{sub 22} with an atom distribution first proposed for CeCr{sub 2}Al{sub 20}. Single-crystal X-ray data for CeTi{sub 2}Al{sub 20} (a = 1470.5(1) pm) and CeMo{sub 2}Al{sub 20} (a = 1457.5(1) pm) were refined to residuals of R = 0.017 and R = 0.012 for 17 variables from 302 and 289 structure factors, respectively. The atoms occupy five atomic sites, which are fully occupied in the titanium compound. For themore » molybdenum compound a considerable deviation from the ideal composition was observed for the crystal used for the structure refinement; nevertheless, it is argued that the homogeneity range might include the ideal composition. The cerium and the transition metal atoms are surrounded by 16 and 12 aluminum atoms, respectively, which correspond to Frank-Kasper polyhedra formed by pentagonal and hexagonal prisms of aluminum atoms, which are capped by the cerium and the transition metal atoms.« less
  • Alloying elements can substantially affect the formation and morphological stability of nickel monosilicide. A comprehensive study of phase formation was performed on 24 Ni alloys with varying concentrations of alloying elements. Silicide films have been used for more than 15 years to contact the source, drain and gate of state-of-the-art complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices. In the past, the addition of alloying elements was shown to improve the transformation from the high resistivity C49 to the low resistivity C54-TiSi{sub 2} phase and to allow for the control of surface and interface roughness of CoSi{sub 2} films as well as produce significant improvementsmore » with respect to agglomeration of the films. Using simultaneous time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD), resistance and light scattering measurements, we follow the formation of the silicide phases in real time during rapid thermal annealing. Additions to the Ni-Si system lead to modifications in the phase formation sequence at low temperatures (metal-rich phases), to variations in the formation temperatures of NiSi and NiSi{sub 2}, and to changes in the agglomeration behavior of the films formed. Of the 24 elements studied, additions of Mo, Re, Ta and W are amongst the most efficient to retard agglomeration while elements such as Pd, Pt and Rh are most efficient to retard the formation of NiSi{sub 2}.« less