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Title: Rapid Characterization of Molecular Chemistry, Nutrient Make-Up and Microlocation of Internal Seed Tissue

Abstract

Wheat differs from corn in biodegradation kinetics and fermentation characteristics. Wheat exhibits a relatively high rate (23% h{sup 01}) and extent (78% DM) of biodegradation, which can lead to metabolic problems such as acidosis and bloat in ruminants. The objective of this study was to rapidly characterize the molecular chemistry of the internal structure of wheat (cv. AC Barrie) and reveal both its structural chemical make-up and nutrient component matrix by analyzing the intensity and spatial distribution of molecular functional groups within the intact seed using advanced synchrotron-powered Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy. The experiment was performed at the U2B station of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York, USA. The wheat tissue was imaged systematically from the pericarp, seed coat, aleurone layer and endosperm under the peaks at {approx}1732 (carbonyl C{double_bond}O ester), 1515 (aromatic compound of lignin), 1650 (amide I), 1025 (non-structural CHO), 1550 (amide II), 1246 (cellulosic material), 1160, 1150, 1080, 930, 860 (all CHO), 3350 (OH and NH stretching), 2928 (CH{sub 2} stretching band) and 2885 cm{sup -1} (CH{sub 3} stretching band). Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were applied to analyze the molecular FTIR spectra obtained from the different inherent structuresmore » within the intact wheat tissues. The results showed that, with synchrotron-powered FTIR microspectroscopy, images of the molecular chemistry of wheat could be generated at an ultra-spatial resolution. The features of aromatic lignin, structural and non-structural carbohydrates, as well as nutrient make-up and interactions in the seeds, could be revealed. Both principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis methods are conclusive in showing that they can discriminate and classify the different inherent structures within the seed tissue. The wheat exhibited distinguishable differences in the structural and nutrient make-up among the pericarp, seed coat, aleurone layer and endosperm. Such information on the molecular chemistry can be used for grain-breeding programs for selecting a superior variety of wheat targeted for food and feed purposes and for predicting wheat quality and nutritive value in humans and animals. Thus advanced synchrotron-powered FTIR technology can provide a greater understanding of the plant-animal interface.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) National Synchrotron Light Source
Sponsoring Org.:
Doe - Office Of Science
OSTI Identifier:
930444
Report Number(s):
BNL-81196-2008-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0909-0495; JSYRES; TRN: US0901391
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-98CH10886
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation; Journal Volume: 14
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ANIMALS; AROMATICS; BIODEGRADATION; BNL; CARBOHYDRATES; CHEMISTRY; ENDOSPERM; FERMENTATION; FOOD; FUNCTIONALS; KINETICS; LIGNIN; NSLS; NUTRIENTS; RUMINANTS; SEEDS; SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION; SPECTROSCOPY; INFRARED SPECTRA; WHEAT; national synchrotron light source

Citation Formats

Yu,P., Block, H., Niu, Z., and Doiron, K. Rapid Characterization of Molecular Chemistry, Nutrient Make-Up and Microlocation of Internal Seed Tissue. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1107/S0909049507014264.
Yu,P., Block, H., Niu, Z., & Doiron, K. Rapid Characterization of Molecular Chemistry, Nutrient Make-Up and Microlocation of Internal Seed Tissue. United States. doi:10.1107/S0909049507014264.
Yu,P., Block, H., Niu, Z., and Doiron, K. Mon . "Rapid Characterization of Molecular Chemistry, Nutrient Make-Up and Microlocation of Internal Seed Tissue". United States. doi:10.1107/S0909049507014264.
@article{osti_930444,
title = {Rapid Characterization of Molecular Chemistry, Nutrient Make-Up and Microlocation of Internal Seed Tissue},
author = {Yu,P. and Block, H. and Niu, Z. and Doiron, K.},
abstractNote = {Wheat differs from corn in biodegradation kinetics and fermentation characteristics. Wheat exhibits a relatively high rate (23% h{sup 01}) and extent (78% DM) of biodegradation, which can lead to metabolic problems such as acidosis and bloat in ruminants. The objective of this study was to rapidly characterize the molecular chemistry of the internal structure of wheat (cv. AC Barrie) and reveal both its structural chemical make-up and nutrient component matrix by analyzing the intensity and spatial distribution of molecular functional groups within the intact seed using advanced synchrotron-powered Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy. The experiment was performed at the U2B station of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York, USA. The wheat tissue was imaged systematically from the pericarp, seed coat, aleurone layer and endosperm under the peaks at {approx}1732 (carbonyl C{double_bond}O ester), 1515 (aromatic compound of lignin), 1650 (amide I), 1025 (non-structural CHO), 1550 (amide II), 1246 (cellulosic material), 1160, 1150, 1080, 930, 860 (all CHO), 3350 (OH and NH stretching), 2928 (CH{sub 2} stretching band) and 2885 cm{sup -1} (CH{sub 3} stretching band). Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were applied to analyze the molecular FTIR spectra obtained from the different inherent structures within the intact wheat tissues. The results showed that, with synchrotron-powered FTIR microspectroscopy, images of the molecular chemistry of wheat could be generated at an ultra-spatial resolution. The features of aromatic lignin, structural and non-structural carbohydrates, as well as nutrient make-up and interactions in the seeds, could be revealed. Both principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis methods are conclusive in showing that they can discriminate and classify the different inherent structures within the seed tissue. The wheat exhibited distinguishable differences in the structural and nutrient make-up among the pericarp, seed coat, aleurone layer and endosperm. Such information on the molecular chemistry can be used for grain-breeding programs for selecting a superior variety of wheat targeted for food and feed purposes and for predicting wheat quality and nutritive value in humans and animals. Thus advanced synchrotron-powered FTIR technology can provide a greater understanding of the plant-animal interface.},
doi = {10.1107/S0909049507014264},
journal = {Journal of Synchrotron Radiation},
number = ,
volume = 14,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
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  • Sorghum seed (Sorghum bicolor L.) has unique degradation and fermentation behaviours compared with other cereal grains such as wheat, barley and corn. This may be related to its cell and cell-wall architecture. The advanced synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) technique enables the study of cell or living cell biochemistry within cellular dimensions. The objective of this study was to use the SR-IMS imaging technique to microprobe molecular spatial distribution and cell architecture of the sorghum seed tissue comprehensively. High-density mapping was carried out using SR-IMS on beamline U2B at the National Synchrotron Light Source (Brookhaven National Laboratory, NY, USA). Molecularmore » images were systematically recorded from the outside to the inside of the seed tissue under various chemical functional groups and their ratios [peaks at {approx}1725 (carbonyl C=O ester), 1650 (amide I), 1657 (protein secondary structure {alpha}-helix), 1628 (protein secondary structure {beta}-sheet), 1550 (amide II), 1515 (aromatic compounds of lignin), 1428, 1371, 1245 (cellulosic compounds in plant seed tissue), 1025 (non-structural CHO, starch granules), 1246 (cellulosic material), 1160 (CHO), 1150 (CHO), 1080 (CHO), 930 (CHO), 860 (CHO), 3350 (OH and NH stretching), 2960 (CH{sub 3} anti-symmetric), 2929 (CH{sub 2} anti-symmetric), 2877 (CH{sub 3} symmetric) and 2848 cm{sup -1} (CH{sub 2} asymmetric)]. The relative protein secondary structure {alpha}-helix to {beta}-sheet ratio image, protein amide I to starch granule ratio image, and anti-symmetric CH{sub 3} to CH{sub 2} ratio image were also investigated within the intact sorghum seed tissue. The results showed unique cell architecture, and the molecular spatial distribution and intensity in the sorghum seed tissue (which were analyzed through microprobe molecular imaging) were generated using SR-IMS. This imaging technique and methodology has high potential and could be used for scientists to develop specific cereal grain varieties with targeted food and feed quality, and can also be used to monitor the degree of grain maturity, grain damage, the fate of organic contaminants and the effect of chemical treatment on plant and grain seeds.« less
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