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Title: Biochemical and Crystallographic Analysis of Substrate Binding and Conformational Changes in Acetyl-CoA Synthetase

Abstract

The adenylate-forming enzymes, including acyl-CoA synthetases, the adenylation domains of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS), and firefly luciferase, perform two half-reactions in a ping-pong mechanism. We have proposed a domain alternation mechanism for these enzymes whereby, upon completion of the initial adenylation reaction, the C-terminal domain of these enzymes undergoes a 140{sup o} rotation to perform the second thioester-forming half-reaction. Structural and kinetic data of mutant enzymes support this hypothesis. We present here mutations to Salmonella enterica acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs) and test the ability of the enzymes to catalyze the complete reaction and the adenylation half-reaction. Substitution of Lys609 with alanine results in an enzyme that is unable to catalyze the adenylate reaction, while the Gly524 to leucine substitution is unable to catalyze the complete reaction yet catalyzes the adenylation half-reaction with activity comparable to the wild-type enzyme. The positions of these two residues, which are located on the mobile C-terminal domain, strongly support the domain alternation hypothesis. We also present steady-state kinetic data of putative substrate-binding residues and demonstrate that no single residue plays a dominant role in dictating CoA binding. We have also created two mutations in the active site to alter the acyl substrate specificity. Finally, the crystallographicmore » structures of wild-type Acs and mutants R194A, R584A, R584E, K609A, and V386A are presented to support the biochemical analysis.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) National Synchrotron Light Source
Sponsoring Org.:
Doe - Office Of Science
OSTI Identifier:
930426
Report Number(s):
BNL-81166-2008-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0006-2960; TRN: US200904%%703
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-98CH10886
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Biochemistry; Journal Volume: 46
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ALANINES; CONFORMATIONAL CHANGES; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; ENZYMES; HYPOTHESIS; KINETICS; LEUCINE; LIGASES; LUCIFERASE; MUTANTS; MUTATIONS; PEPTIDES; RESIDUES; ROTATION; SALMONELLA; SPECIFICITY; SUBSTRATES; national synchrotron light source

Citation Formats

Reger,A., Carney, J., and Gulick, A. Biochemical and Crystallographic Analysis of Substrate Binding and Conformational Changes in Acetyl-CoA Synthetase. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1021/bi6026506.
Reger,A., Carney, J., & Gulick, A. Biochemical and Crystallographic Analysis of Substrate Binding and Conformational Changes in Acetyl-CoA Synthetase. United States. doi:10.1021/bi6026506.
Reger,A., Carney, J., and Gulick, A. Mon . "Biochemical and Crystallographic Analysis of Substrate Binding and Conformational Changes in Acetyl-CoA Synthetase". United States. doi:10.1021/bi6026506.
@article{osti_930426,
title = {Biochemical and Crystallographic Analysis of Substrate Binding and Conformational Changes in Acetyl-CoA Synthetase},
author = {Reger,A. and Carney, J. and Gulick, A.},
abstractNote = {The adenylate-forming enzymes, including acyl-CoA synthetases, the adenylation domains of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS), and firefly luciferase, perform two half-reactions in a ping-pong mechanism. We have proposed a domain alternation mechanism for these enzymes whereby, upon completion of the initial adenylation reaction, the C-terminal domain of these enzymes undergoes a 140{sup o} rotation to perform the second thioester-forming half-reaction. Structural and kinetic data of mutant enzymes support this hypothesis. We present here mutations to Salmonella enterica acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs) and test the ability of the enzymes to catalyze the complete reaction and the adenylation half-reaction. Substitution of Lys609 with alanine results in an enzyme that is unable to catalyze the adenylate reaction, while the Gly524 to leucine substitution is unable to catalyze the complete reaction yet catalyzes the adenylation half-reaction with activity comparable to the wild-type enzyme. The positions of these two residues, which are located on the mobile C-terminal domain, strongly support the domain alternation hypothesis. We also present steady-state kinetic data of putative substrate-binding residues and demonstrate that no single residue plays a dominant role in dictating CoA binding. We have also created two mutations in the active site to alter the acyl substrate specificity. Finally, the crystallographic structures of wild-type Acs and mutants R194A, R584A, R584E, K609A, and V386A are presented to support the biochemical analysis.},
doi = {10.1021/bi6026506},
journal = {Biochemistry},
number = ,
volume = 46,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
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  • We characterized the conformational change of adenylate kinase (AK) between open and closed forms by conducting five all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations, each of 100 ns duration. Different initial structures and substrate binding configurations were used to probe the pathways of AK conformational change in explicit solvent, and no bias potential was applied. A complete closed-to-open and a partial open-to-closed transition were observed, demonstrating the direct impact of substrate-mediated interactions on shifting protein conformation. The sampled configurations suggest two possible pathways for connecting the open and closed structures of AK, affirming the prediction made based on available x-ray structures and earlier worksmore » of coarse-grained modeling. The trajectories of the all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations revealed the complexity of protein dynamics and the coupling between different domains during conformational change. Calculations of solvent density and density fluctuations surrounding AK did not show prominent variation during the transition between closed and open forms. Finally, we characterized the effects of local unfolding of an important hinge near Pro177 on the closed-to-open transition of AK and identified a novel mechanism by which hinge unfolding modulates protein conformational change. The local unfolding of Pro177 hinge induces alternative tertiary contacts that stabilize the closed structure and prevent the opening transition.« less
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  • Malyl-CoA lyase (MCL) is an Mg 2+-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible cleavage of (2 S)-4-malyl-CoA to yield acetyl-CoA and glyoxylate. MCL enzymes, which are found in a variety of bacteria, are members of the citrate lyase-like family and are involved in the assimilation of one- and two-carbon compounds. Here, the 1.56 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of MCL from Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 with bound Mg 2+is presented. Structural alignment with the closely related Rhodobacter sphaeroides malyl-CoA lyase complexed with Mg 2+, oxalate and CoA allows a detailed analysis of the domain motion of the enzyme caused by substrate binding.more » Alignment of the structures shows that a simple hinge motion centered on the conserved residues Phe268 and Thr269 moves the C-terminal domain by about 30° relative to the rest of the molecule. Furthermore, this domain motion positions a conserved aspartate residue located in the C-terminal domain in the active site of the adjacent monomer, which may serve as a general acid/base in the catalytic mechanism.« less