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Title: Protein Secondary Structures (alpha-helix and beta-sheet) at a Cellular Levle and Protein Fractions in Relation to Rumen Degradation Behaviours of Protein: A New Approach

Abstract

Studying the secondary structure of proteins leads to an understanding of the components that make up a whole protein, and such an understanding of the structure of the whole protein is often vital to understanding its digestive behaviour and nutritive value in animals. The main protein secondary structures are the {alpha}-helix and {beta}-sheet. The percentage of these two structures in protein secondary structures influences protein nutritive value, quality and digestive behaviour. A high percentage of {beta}-sheet structure may partly cause a low access to gastrointestinal digestive enzymes, which results in a low protein value. The objectives of the present study were to use advanced synchrotron-based Fourier transform IR (S-FTIR) microspectroscopy as a new approach to reveal the molecular chemistry of the protein secondary structures of feed tissues affected by heat-processing within intact tissue at a cellular level, and to quantify protein secondary structures using multicomponent peak modelling Gaussian and Lorentzian methods, in relation to protein digestive behaviours and nutritive value in the rumen, which was determined using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System. The synchrotron-based molecular chemistry research experiment was performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, US Department of Energy. The results showed that, withmore » S-FTIR microspectroscopy, the molecular chemistry, ultrastructural chemical make-up and nutritive characteristics could be revealed at a high ultraspatial resolution ({approx}10 {mu}m). S-FTIR microspectroscopy revealed that the secondary structure of protein differed between raw and roasted golden flaxseeds in terms of the percentages and ratio of {alpha}-helixes and {beta}-sheets in the mid-IR range at the cellular level. By using multicomponent peak modelling, the results show that the roasting reduced (P <0.05) the percentage of {alpha}-helixes (from 47.1% to 36.1%: S-FTIR absorption intensity), increased the percentage of {beta}-sheets (from 37.2% to 49.8%: S-FTIR absorption intensity) and reduced the {alpha}-helix to {beta}-sheet ratio (from 0.3 to 0.7) in the golden flaxseeds, which indicated a negative effect of the roasting on protein values, utilisation and bioavailability. These results were proved by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System in situ animal trial, which also revealed that roasting increased the amount of protein bound to lignin, and well as of the Maillard reaction protein (both of which are poorly used by ruminants), and increased the level of indigestible and undegradable protein in ruminants. The present results demonstrate the potential of highly spatially resolved synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy to locate 'pure' protein in feed tissues, and reveal protein secondary structures and digestive behaviour, making a significant step forward in and an important contribution to protein nutritional research. Further study is needed to determine the sensitivities of protein secondary structures to various heat-processing conditions, and to quantify the relationship between protein secondary structures and the nutrient availability and digestive behaviour of various protein sources. Information from the present study arising from the synchrotron-based IR probing of the protein secondary structures of protein sources at the cellular level will be valuable as a guide to maintaining protein quality and predicting digestive behaviours.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) National Synchrotron Light Source
Sponsoring Org.:
Doe - Office Of Science
OSTI Identifier:
930418
Report Number(s):
BNL-81150-2008-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0007-1145; BJNUAV; TRN: US0901383
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-98CH10886
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: British Journal of Nutrition; Journal Volume: 94; Journal Issue: 5
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ABSORPTION; ANIMALS; AVAILABILITY; BNL; CARBOHYDRATES; BIOCHEMISTRY; DIGESTION; ENZYMES; LIGNIN; NSLS; NUTRIENTS; NUTRITION; PROTEINS; RUMINANTS; STOMACH; national synchrotron light source

Citation Formats

Yu,P. Protein Secondary Structures (alpha-helix and beta-sheet) at a Cellular Levle and Protein Fractions in Relation to Rumen Degradation Behaviours of Protein: A New Approach. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Yu,P. Protein Secondary Structures (alpha-helix and beta-sheet) at a Cellular Levle and Protein Fractions in Relation to Rumen Degradation Behaviours of Protein: A New Approach. United States.
Yu,P. Mon . "Protein Secondary Structures (alpha-helix and beta-sheet) at a Cellular Levle and Protein Fractions in Relation to Rumen Degradation Behaviours of Protein: A New Approach". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_930418,
title = {Protein Secondary Structures (alpha-helix and beta-sheet) at a Cellular Levle and Protein Fractions in Relation to Rumen Degradation Behaviours of Protein: A New Approach},
author = {Yu,P.},
abstractNote = {Studying the secondary structure of proteins leads to an understanding of the components that make up a whole protein, and such an understanding of the structure of the whole protein is often vital to understanding its digestive behaviour and nutritive value in animals. The main protein secondary structures are the {alpha}-helix and {beta}-sheet. The percentage of these two structures in protein secondary structures influences protein nutritive value, quality and digestive behaviour. A high percentage of {beta}-sheet structure may partly cause a low access to gastrointestinal digestive enzymes, which results in a low protein value. The objectives of the present study were to use advanced synchrotron-based Fourier transform IR (S-FTIR) microspectroscopy as a new approach to reveal the molecular chemistry of the protein secondary structures of feed tissues affected by heat-processing within intact tissue at a cellular level, and to quantify protein secondary structures using multicomponent peak modelling Gaussian and Lorentzian methods, in relation to protein digestive behaviours and nutritive value in the rumen, which was determined using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System. The synchrotron-based molecular chemistry research experiment was performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, US Department of Energy. The results showed that, with S-FTIR microspectroscopy, the molecular chemistry, ultrastructural chemical make-up and nutritive characteristics could be revealed at a high ultraspatial resolution ({approx}10 {mu}m). S-FTIR microspectroscopy revealed that the secondary structure of protein differed between raw and roasted golden flaxseeds in terms of the percentages and ratio of {alpha}-helixes and {beta}-sheets in the mid-IR range at the cellular level. By using multicomponent peak modelling, the results show that the roasting reduced (P <0.05) the percentage of {alpha}-helixes (from 47.1% to 36.1%: S-FTIR absorption intensity), increased the percentage of {beta}-sheets (from 37.2% to 49.8%: S-FTIR absorption intensity) and reduced the {alpha}-helix to {beta}-sheet ratio (from 0.3 to 0.7) in the golden flaxseeds, which indicated a negative effect of the roasting on protein values, utilisation and bioavailability. These results were proved by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System in situ animal trial, which also revealed that roasting increased the amount of protein bound to lignin, and well as of the Maillard reaction protein (both of which are poorly used by ruminants), and increased the level of indigestible and undegradable protein in ruminants. The present results demonstrate the potential of highly spatially resolved synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy to locate 'pure' protein in feed tissues, and reveal protein secondary structures and digestive behaviour, making a significant step forward in and an important contribution to protein nutritional research. Further study is needed to determine the sensitivities of protein secondary structures to various heat-processing conditions, and to quantify the relationship between protein secondary structures and the nutrient availability and digestive behaviour of various protein sources. Information from the present study arising from the synchrotron-based IR probing of the protein secondary structures of protein sources at the cellular level will be valuable as a guide to maintaining protein quality and predicting digestive behaviours.},
doi = {},
journal = {British Journal of Nutrition},
number = 5,
volume = 94,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Because poly-L-lysine (PLL) can exist in the {alpha}-helix or {beta}-sheet conformation depending on solution preparation and solution conditions, PLL is a suitable candidate to probe the dependence of protein interactions on secondary structure. The osmotic second virial coefficient and weight-average molecular weight are reported from low-angle laser-light scattering measurements for PLL as a function of NaCl concentration, pH, and {alpha}-helix or {beta}-sheet content. Interactions between PLL molecules become more attractive as salt concentration increases due to screening of PLL charge by salt ions and at low salt concentration become more attractive as pH increases due to decreased net charge onmore » PLL. The experimental results show that interactions are stronger for the {beta}-sheet conformation than for the {alpha}-helix conformation. A spherically-symmetric model for the potential of mean force is used to account for specific interactions not described by DLVO theory and to show how differences in secondary structure affect PLL interactions.« less
  • The structure of thin films cast from regenerated solutions of Bombyx mori cocoon silk in hexafluoroisopropyl alcohol (HFIP) was studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction during heating. A solid-state conformational transition from an alpha-helical structure to the well-known beta-sheet silk II structure occurred at a temperature of approximately 140 degrees C. The transition appeared to be homogeneous, as both phases do not coexist within the resolution of the current study. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of the films showed an endothermic melting peak followed by an exothermic crystallization peak, both occurring near 140 degrees C. Oriented fibers were also produced thatmore » displayed this helical molecular conformation. Subsequent heating above the structural transition temperature produced oriented beta-sheet fibers very similar in structure to B. mori cocoon fibers. Heat treatment of silk films at temperatures well below their degradation temperature offers a controllable route to materials with well-defined structures and mechanical behavior.« less
  • New classes of helix–helix interactions in protein structures are reported in which interactions only occur at the terminal regions or between the terminal region of one helix and the middle region of another helix. Helix–helix interactions are important for the structure, stability and function of α-helical proteins. Helices that either cross in the middle or show extensive contacts between each other, such as coiled coils, have been investigated in previous studies. Interactions between two helices can also occur only at the terminal regions or between the terminal region of one helix and the middle region of another helix. Examples ofmore » such helix pairs are found in aquaporin, H{sup +}/Cl{sup −} transporter and Bcl-2 proteins. The frequency of the occurrence of such ‘end-to-end’ (EE) and ‘end-to-middle’ (EM) helix pairs in protein structures is not known. Questions regarding the residue preferences in the interface and the mode of interhelical interactions in such helix pairs also remain unanswered. In this study, high-resolution structures of all-α proteins from the PDB have been systematically analyzed and the helix pairs that interact only in EE or EM fashion have been extracted. EE and EM helix pairs have been categorized into five classes (N–N, N–C, C–C, N–MID and C–MID) depending on the region of interaction. Nearly 13% of 5725 helix pairs belonged to one of the five classes. Analysis of single-residue propensities indicated that hydrophobic and polar residues prefer to occur in the C-terminal and N-terminal regions, respectively. Hydrophobic C-terminal interacting residues and polar N-terminal interacting residues are also highly conserved. A strong correlation exists between some of the residue properties (surface area/volume and length of side chains) and their preferences for occurring in the interface of EE and EM helix pairs. In contrast to interacting non-EE/EM helix pairs, helices in EE and EM pairs are farther apart. In these helix pairs, residues with large surface area/volume and longer side chains are preferred in the interfacial region.« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • The regulatory (R) subunits of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A or PKA) are multi-domain proteins responsible for conferring cAMP-dependence and localizing PKA to specific subcellular locations. There are four isoforms of the R subunit in mammals that are similar in molecular mass and domain organization, but clearly serve different biological functions. Although high-resolution structures are available for the cAMP-binding domains and dimerization/docking domains of two isoforms, there are no high-resolution structures of any of the intact R subunit homodimer isoforms. The results of small-angle X-ray scattering studies presented here indicate that the RI{alpha}, RII{alpha}, and RII{beta} homodimers differmore » markedly in overall shape, despite extensive sequence homology and similar molecular masses. The RII{alpha} and RII{beta} homodimers have very extended, rod-like shapes, whereas the RI{alpha} homodimer likely has a compact Y-shape. Based on a comparison of the R subunit sequences, we predict that the linker regions are the likely cause of these large differences in shape among the isoforms. In addition, we show that cAMP binding does not cause large conformational changes in type I{alpha} or II{alpha} R subunit homodimers, suggesting that the activation of PKA by cAMP involves only local conformational changes in the R subunits.« less