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Title: Amphipathic Benzoic Acid Derivativies: Synthesis and Binding in the Hydrophobic Tunnel of the Zinc Deacetylase LpxC

Abstract

The first committed step in lipid A biosynthesis is catalyzed by uridine diphosphate-(3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl))-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC), a zinc-dependent deacetylase, and inhibitors of LpxC may be useful in the development of antibacterial agents targeting a broad spectrum of Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we report the design of amphipathic benzoic acid derivatives that bind in the hydrophobic tunnel in the active site of LpxC. The hydrophobic tunnel accounts for the specificity of LpxC toward substrates and substrate analogues bearing a 3-O-myristoyl substituent. Simple benzoic acid derivatives bearing an aliphatic 'tail' bind in the hydrophobic tunnel with micromolar affinity despite the lack of a glucosamine ring like that of the substrate. However, although these benzoic acid derivatives each contain a negatively charged carboxylate 'warhead' intended to coordinate to the active site zinc ion, the 2.25 {angstrom} resolution X-ray crystal structure of LpxC complexed with 3-(heptyloxy)benzoate reveals 'backward' binding in the hydrophobic tunnel, such that the benzoate moiety does not coordinate to zinc. Instead, it binds at the outer end of the hydrophobic tunnel. Interestingly, these ligands bind with affinities comparable to those measured for more complicated substrate analogue inhibitors containing glucosamine ring analogues and hydroxamate 'warheads' that coordinate to the active site zinc ion. Wemore » conclude that the intermolecular interactions in the hydrophobic tunnel dominate enzyme affinity in this series of benzoic acid derivatives.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) National Synchrotron Light Source
Sponsoring Org.:
Doe - Office Of Science
OSTI Identifier:
930389
Report Number(s):
BNL-81111-2008-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0960-894X; TRN: US200904%%671
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-98CH10886
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: BioOrganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters; Journal Volume: 15; Journal Issue: 7
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; AFFINITY; BACTERIA; BENZOIC ACID; BIOSYNTHESIS; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; ENZYMES; GLUCOSAMINE; LIPIDS; RESOLUTION; SPECIFICITY; SUBSTRATES; SYNTHESIS; URIDINE; ZINC; ZINC IONS; national synchrotron light source

Citation Formats

Shin,H., Gennadios, H., Whittington, D., and Christianson, D. Amphipathic Benzoic Acid Derivativies: Synthesis and Binding in the Hydrophobic Tunnel of the Zinc Deacetylase LpxC. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Shin,H., Gennadios, H., Whittington, D., & Christianson, D. Amphipathic Benzoic Acid Derivativies: Synthesis and Binding in the Hydrophobic Tunnel of the Zinc Deacetylase LpxC. United States.
Shin,H., Gennadios, H., Whittington, D., and Christianson, D. Mon . "Amphipathic Benzoic Acid Derivativies: Synthesis and Binding in the Hydrophobic Tunnel of the Zinc Deacetylase LpxC". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_930389,
title = {Amphipathic Benzoic Acid Derivativies: Synthesis and Binding in the Hydrophobic Tunnel of the Zinc Deacetylase LpxC},
author = {Shin,H. and Gennadios, H. and Whittington, D. and Christianson, D.},
abstractNote = {The first committed step in lipid A biosynthesis is catalyzed by uridine diphosphate-(3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl))-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC), a zinc-dependent deacetylase, and inhibitors of LpxC may be useful in the development of antibacterial agents targeting a broad spectrum of Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we report the design of amphipathic benzoic acid derivatives that bind in the hydrophobic tunnel in the active site of LpxC. The hydrophobic tunnel accounts for the specificity of LpxC toward substrates and substrate analogues bearing a 3-O-myristoyl substituent. Simple benzoic acid derivatives bearing an aliphatic 'tail' bind in the hydrophobic tunnel with micromolar affinity despite the lack of a glucosamine ring like that of the substrate. However, although these benzoic acid derivatives each contain a negatively charged carboxylate 'warhead' intended to coordinate to the active site zinc ion, the 2.25 {angstrom} resolution X-ray crystal structure of LpxC complexed with 3-(heptyloxy)benzoate reveals 'backward' binding in the hydrophobic tunnel, such that the benzoate moiety does not coordinate to zinc. Instead, it binds at the outer end of the hydrophobic tunnel. Interestingly, these ligands bind with affinities comparable to those measured for more complicated substrate analogue inhibitors containing glucosamine ring analogues and hydroxamate 'warheads' that coordinate to the active site zinc ion. We conclude that the intermolecular interactions in the hydrophobic tunnel dominate enzyme affinity in this series of benzoic acid derivatives.},
doi = {},
journal = {BioOrganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters},
number = 7,
volume = 15,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • LpxC is a zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of lipid A, a vital component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Accordingly, the inhibition of LpxC is an attractive strategy for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. Here, we report the 2.7 {angstrom} resolution X-ray crystal structure of LpxC from Aquifex aeolicus complexed with uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP), and the 3.1 {angstrom} resolution structure of LpxC complexed with pyrophosphate. The X-ray crystal structure of the LpxC-UDP complex provides the first view of interactions likely to be exploited by the substrate UDP group in the 'basicmore » patch' of the active site. The diphosphate group of UDP makes hydrogen bond interactions with strictly conserved residue K239 as well as solvent molecules. The ribose moiety of UDP interacts with partially conserved residue E197. The UDP uracil group hydrogen bonds with both the backbone NH group and the backbone carbonyl group of E160, and with the backbone NH group of K162 through an intervening water molecule. Finally, the {alpha}-phosphate and uracil groups of UDP interact with R143 and R262 through intervening water molecules. The structure of LpxC complexed with pyrophosphate reveals generally similar intermolecular interactions in the basic patch. Unexpectedly, diphosphate binding in both complexes is accompanied by coordination to an additional zinc ion, resulting in the identification of a new metal-binding site termed the E-site. The structures of the LpxC-UDP and LpxC-pyrophosphate complexes provide new insights with regard to substrate recognition in the basic patch and metal ion coordination in the active site of LpxC.« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • The metal-dependent deacetylase LpxC catalyzes the first committed step of lipid A biosynthesis in Gram-negative bacteria. Accordingly, LpxC is an attractive target for the development of inhibitors that may serve as potential new antibiotics for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. Here, we report the 2.7 Angstroms resolution X-ray crystal structure of LpxC complexed with the substrate analogue inhibitor TU-514 and the 2.0 Angstroms resolution structure of LpxC complexed with imidazole. The X-ray crystal structure of LpxC complexed with TU-514 allows for a detailed examination of the coordination geometry of the catalytic zinc ion and other enzyme-inhibitor interactions in themore » active site. The hydroxamate group of TU-514 forms a bidentate chelate complex with the zinc ion and makes hydrogen bond interactions with conserved active site residues E78, H265, and T191. The inhibitor C-4 hydroxyl group makes direct hydrogen bond interactions with E197 and H58. Finally, the C-3 myristate moiety of the inhibitor binds in the hydrophobic tunnel of the active site. These intermolecular interactions provide a foundation for understanding structural aspects of enzyme-substrate and enzyme-inhibitor affinity. Comparison of the TU-514 complex with cacodylate and imidazole complexes suggests a possible substrate diphosphate binding site and highlights residues that may stabilize the tetrahedral intermediate and its flanking transition states in catalysis. Evidence of a catalytic zinc ion in the native zinc enzyme coordinated by H79, H238, D242, and two water molecules with square pyramidal geometry is also presented. These results suggest that the native state of this metallohydrolase may contain a pentacoordinate zinc ion, which contrasts with the native states of archetypical zinc hydrolases such as thermolysin and carboxypeptidase A.« less
  • Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are protein deacetylases that play a role in repression of gene transcription and are emerging targets in cancer therapy. Here, we characterize the structure and enzymatic activity of the catalytic domain of human HDAC7 (cdHDAC7). Although HDAC7 normally exists as part of a multiprotein complex, we show that cdHDAC7 has a low level of deacetylase activity which can be inhibited by known HDAC inhibitors. The crystal structures of human cdHDAC7 and its complexes with two hydroxamate inhibitors are the first structures of the catalytic domain of class IIa HDACs and demonstrate significant differences with previously reported classmore » I and class IIb-like HDAC structures. We show that cdHDAC7 has an additional class IIa HDAC-specific zinc binding motif adjacent to the active site which is likely to participate in substrate recognition and protein-protein interaction and may provide a site for modulation of activity. Furthermore, a different active site topology results in modified catalytic properties and in an enlarged active site pocket. Our studies provide mechanistic insights into class IIa HDACs and facilitate the design of specific modulators.« less
  • A photoaffinity analog of the potent epithelial chloride channel blocker 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid has been synthesized and characterized. In the dark, this reagent, 5-nitro-2-(N-3-(4-azidophenyl)-propylamino)-benzoic acid, and the parent compound reversibly inhibited chloride efflux in human red blood cell ghosts. Irradiation of ghost membranes with 350 microM arylazide analog reduced the rate of chloride efflux to 33% of the control value. The photoinactivation process was not reversed by exhaustive washing of ghost membranes. Covalent incorporation of the photoaffinity reagent was supported by difference ultraviolet spectroscopy, which indicated the attachment of the substituted 2-amino-5-nitrobenzoic acid chromophore to ghost membranes. The novel photolabeling agentmore » described here should be a useful structural probe for chloride channels in erythrocyte membranes and epithelial cells.« less