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Title: Combined Sulfur K-edge XANES Spectroscopy and Stable Isotope Analysis of Fulvic Acids and Groundwater Sulfate Identify Sulfur Cycling in a Karstic Catchment Area

Abstract

Chemical and isotope analyses on groundwater sulfate, atmospheric deposition sulfate and fulvic acids (FAs) associated sulfur were used to determine the S cycling in a karstic catchment area of the Franconian Alb, Southern Germany. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy provided information on the oxidation state and the mechanism of the incorporation of sulfur in FAs. During base flow {delta}{sup 34}S values of groundwater sulfate were slightly depleted to those of recent atmospheric sulfate deposition with mean amount-weighted {delta}{sup 34}S values of around + 3{per_thousand}. The {delta}{sup 18}O values of groundwater sulfate shifted to lower values compared to those of atmospheric deposition and indicated steadiness from base flow to peak flow. The reduced sulfur species (S{sub -1}/thiol; S{sub 0}/thiophene, disulfide, S{sub +2}2/sulfoxide) of soil FAs averaged around 49% of the total sulfur and {delta}{sup 34}S value in FAs was found to be 0.5{per_thousand}. The formation of polysulfides and thiols in FAs in concert with a decreasing isotope value of {delta}{sup 34}S in FAs with respect to those of atmospheric deposition sulfate suggests oxidation of H{sub 2}S, enriched in the {sup 32}S isotope, with organic material. The depletion of {delta}{sup 18}O-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} by several per mil inmore » groundwater sulfate with respect to those of atmospheric deposition is, therefore, consistent with the hypothesis that SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} has been cycled through the organic S pool as well as that groundwater sulfate is formed by oxidation of H{sub 2}S with organic matter in the mineral soil of the catchment area.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY (BNL), NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE (NSLS)
Sponsoring Org.:
Doe - Office Of Science
OSTI Identifier:
930335
Report Number(s):
BNL-81046-2008-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0009-2541; CHGEAD; TRN: US200904%%629
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-98CH10886
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Chemical Geology; Journal Volume: 238
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY; DEPOSITION; FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY; FULVIC ACIDS; ORGANIC MATTER; OXIDATION; SOILS; SPECTROSCOPY; STABLE ISOTOPES; SULFATES; SULFIDES; SULFUR; THIOLS; VALENCE; X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Einsiedl,F., Schafer, T., and Northrup, P. Combined Sulfur K-edge XANES Spectroscopy and Stable Isotope Analysis of Fulvic Acids and Groundwater Sulfate Identify Sulfur Cycling in a Karstic Catchment Area. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2006.11.014.
Einsiedl,F., Schafer, T., & Northrup, P. Combined Sulfur K-edge XANES Spectroscopy and Stable Isotope Analysis of Fulvic Acids and Groundwater Sulfate Identify Sulfur Cycling in a Karstic Catchment Area. United States. doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2006.11.014.
Einsiedl,F., Schafer, T., and Northrup, P. Mon . "Combined Sulfur K-edge XANES Spectroscopy and Stable Isotope Analysis of Fulvic Acids and Groundwater Sulfate Identify Sulfur Cycling in a Karstic Catchment Area". United States. doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2006.11.014.
@article{osti_930335,
title = {Combined Sulfur K-edge XANES Spectroscopy and Stable Isotope Analysis of Fulvic Acids and Groundwater Sulfate Identify Sulfur Cycling in a Karstic Catchment Area},
author = {Einsiedl,F. and Schafer, T. and Northrup, P.},
abstractNote = {Chemical and isotope analyses on groundwater sulfate, atmospheric deposition sulfate and fulvic acids (FAs) associated sulfur were used to determine the S cycling in a karstic catchment area of the Franconian Alb, Southern Germany. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy provided information on the oxidation state and the mechanism of the incorporation of sulfur in FAs. During base flow {delta}{sup 34}S values of groundwater sulfate were slightly depleted to those of recent atmospheric sulfate deposition with mean amount-weighted {delta}{sup 34}S values of around + 3{per_thousand}. The {delta}{sup 18}O values of groundwater sulfate shifted to lower values compared to those of atmospheric deposition and indicated steadiness from base flow to peak flow. The reduced sulfur species (S{sub -1}/thiol; S{sub 0}/thiophene, disulfide, S{sub +2}2/sulfoxide) of soil FAs averaged around 49% of the total sulfur and {delta}{sup 34}S value in FAs was found to be 0.5{per_thousand}. The formation of polysulfides and thiols in FAs in concert with a decreasing isotope value of {delta}{sup 34}S in FAs with respect to those of atmospheric deposition sulfate suggests oxidation of H{sub 2}S, enriched in the {sup 32}S isotope, with organic material. The depletion of {delta}{sup 18}O-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} by several per mil in groundwater sulfate with respect to those of atmospheric deposition is, therefore, consistent with the hypothesis that SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} has been cycled through the organic S pool as well as that groundwater sulfate is formed by oxidation of H{sub 2}S with organic matter in the mineral soil of the catchment area.},
doi = {10.1016/j.chemgeo.2006.11.014},
journal = {Chemical Geology},
number = ,
volume = 238,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Groundwater samples collected in a shallow oxic and reduced deep groundwater system revealed the influence of dissolved sulfide on the chemical and isotopic composition of fulvic acid associated sulfur. Stable isotope compositions of groundwater sulfate and fulvic acid sulfur and sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy data were used to determine the sources and processes affecting fulvic acid sulfur in the aquifer. A {delta}34S value of 2.2 %% for the shallow groundwater sulfate and a {delta}34S value of fulvic acids of 4.9 % accompanied by a contribution of up to 49% of the most oxidized sulfur speciesmore » (S+6) documented that fulvic acid sulfur is mainly derived from soil S compounds such as ester sulfates, with {delta}34S values similar to those of atmospheric sulfate deposition. In contrast, in the deep groundwater system with elevated {delta}34S values in groundwater sulfate of up to 20% due to bacterial sulfate reduction, {delta}34S values in fulvic acid sulfur were negative and were up to 22% lower compared to those of groundwater sulfate. Furthermore, reduced sulfur compounds constituted a significantly higher proportion of total fulvic acid sulfur in the deep groundwater compared to fulvic acids in shallow groundwater, supporting the hypothesis that fulvic acids act as a sink for dissolved hydrogen sulfide in the deep aquifer. Our results suggest that the combination of sulfur K edge XANES spectroscopy and stable isotope analysis on fulvic acids represents a powerful tool to elucidate the role of fulvic acids in the sulfur cycle in groundwater.« less
  • Sulfur species in soils and sediments have previously been determined indirectly using destructive techniques. A direct and more accurate method for S speciation would improve our understanding of S biogeochemistry. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was performed on purified humic and fulvic acids from terrestrial and aquatic environments. This methodology allows direct determination of S species using the relationship that exists with the energy required for core electron transitions and in some cases, correlation with additional spectral features. Soil, peat, and aquatic humic acids were dominated by sulfonates with an oxidation state of +5, but also contained ester-bondedmore » sulfates with an oxidation state of +6. Leonardite humic acid contained ester-bonded sulfate and an unidentified S compound with an oxidation state of +4.0. In contrast, high-valent S in soil, peat, and aquatic fulvic acids was exclusively in the form of sulfonic acids. Reduced S species were also present in both humic and fulvic acids. XANES is a valuable method for the speciation of S in humic materials and of potential use in S speciation of unfractionated soils. 27 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.« less
  • Sulphur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was used to quantify S species in humic substance extracts from ten soils from the UK, China and New Zealand, which differ in land use and agricultural management. XANES spectroscopy showed the presence of most reduced (sulphides, disulphides, thiols and thiophenes), intermediate (sulphoxides and sulphonates) and highly oxidised S (ester sulphates) forms, with the three groups representing 14-32%, 33-50% and 22-53% of the organic S in the humic substance extracts, respectively. Land use had a profound influence on the relative proportions of S species. Well-drained arable soils generally had a highermore » proportion of organic S present in the most oxidised form than the grassland soils collected nearby, whereas paddy soils showed a more reduced profile due to episodic flooding. In the Broadbalk Classical Experiment at Rothamsted, reversion of an arable system to grassland or woodland in the 1880s resulted in an increase of the most reduced and intermediate S species at the expense of the most oxidised S species. Long-term applications of farmyard manure to an arable plot also shifted S species from the most oxidised to the intermediate and the most reduced species. Sulphur immobilisation and gross mineralisation were determined in seven soils using the {sup 35}S isotope dilution method. Gross mineralisation during a 53-day incubation correlated more closely with the amounts of the most reduced and intermediate S species than with the most oxidised S species, suggesting that the former (C-bonded S) were the main source of organic S for mineralisation in the short-term.« less
  • No abstract prepared.