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Title: Chemical Composition of Aquatic Dissolved Organic Matter in Five Boreal Forest Catchments Sampled in Spring and Fall Seasons

Abstract

The chemical composition and carbon isotope signature of aquatic dissolved organic matter (DOM) in five boreal forest catchments in Scandinavia were investigated. The DOM was isolated during spring and fall seasons using a reverse osmosis technique. The DOM samples were analyzed by elemental analysis, FT-IR, solid-state CP-MAS {sup 13}C-NMR, and C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy. In addition, the relative abundance of carbon isotopes ({sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}C) in the samples was measured. There were no significant differences in the chemical composition or carbon isotope signature of the DOM sampled in spring and fall seasons. Also, differences in DOM composition between the five catchments were minor. Compared to reference peat fulvic and humic acids, all DOM samples were richer in O-alkyl carbon and contained less aromatic and phenolic carbon, as shown by FT-IR, {sup 13}C-NMR, and C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy. The DOM was clearly enriched in {sup 14}C relative to the NBS oxalic acid standard of 1950, indicating that the aquatic DOM contained considerable amounts of organic carbon younger than about 50 years. The weight-based C:N ratios of 31 {+-} 6 and the {delta}{sup 13}Cvalues of -29 {+-} 2{per_thousand}indicate that the isolated DOM is of terrestrial rather than aquatic origin. We concludemore » that young, hydrophilic carbon compounds of terrestrial origin are predominant in the samples investigated, and that the composition of the aquatic DOM in the studied boreal forest catchments is rather stable during low to intermediate flow conditions.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) National Synchrotron Light Source
Sponsoring Org.:
Doe - Office Of Science
OSTI Identifier:
930085
Report Number(s):
BNL-80719-2008-JA
TRN: US200822%%1301
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-98CH10886
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Biogeochemistry; Journal Volume: 80
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; ABUNDANCE; AROMATICS; CARBON; CARBON COMPOUNDS; CARBON ISOTOPES; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; FORESTS; HUMIC ACIDS; ORGANIC MATTER; ORIGIN; OSMOSIS; OXALIC ACID; PEAT; SCANDINAVIA; SEASONS; SPECTROSCOPY; SPRINGS; STANDARDS; national synchrotron light source

Citation Formats

Schumacher,M., Christl, I., Vogt, R., Barmettler, K., Jacobsen, C., and Kretzschmar, R. Chemical Composition of Aquatic Dissolved Organic Matter in Five Boreal Forest Catchments Sampled in Spring and Fall Seasons. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1007/s10533-006-9022-x.
Schumacher,M., Christl, I., Vogt, R., Barmettler, K., Jacobsen, C., & Kretzschmar, R. Chemical Composition of Aquatic Dissolved Organic Matter in Five Boreal Forest Catchments Sampled in Spring and Fall Seasons. United States. doi:10.1007/s10533-006-9022-x.
Schumacher,M., Christl, I., Vogt, R., Barmettler, K., Jacobsen, C., and Kretzschmar, R. Sun . "Chemical Composition of Aquatic Dissolved Organic Matter in Five Boreal Forest Catchments Sampled in Spring and Fall Seasons". United States. doi:10.1007/s10533-006-9022-x.
@article{osti_930085,
title = {Chemical Composition of Aquatic Dissolved Organic Matter in Five Boreal Forest Catchments Sampled in Spring and Fall Seasons},
author = {Schumacher,M. and Christl, I. and Vogt, R. and Barmettler, K. and Jacobsen, C. and Kretzschmar, R.},
abstractNote = {The chemical composition and carbon isotope signature of aquatic dissolved organic matter (DOM) in five boreal forest catchments in Scandinavia were investigated. The DOM was isolated during spring and fall seasons using a reverse osmosis technique. The DOM samples were analyzed by elemental analysis, FT-IR, solid-state CP-MAS {sup 13}C-NMR, and C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy. In addition, the relative abundance of carbon isotopes ({sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}C) in the samples was measured. There were no significant differences in the chemical composition or carbon isotope signature of the DOM sampled in spring and fall seasons. Also, differences in DOM composition between the five catchments were minor. Compared to reference peat fulvic and humic acids, all DOM samples were richer in O-alkyl carbon and contained less aromatic and phenolic carbon, as shown by FT-IR, {sup 13}C-NMR, and C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy. The DOM was clearly enriched in {sup 14}C relative to the NBS oxalic acid standard of 1950, indicating that the aquatic DOM contained considerable amounts of organic carbon younger than about 50 years. The weight-based C:N ratios of 31 {+-} 6 and the {delta}{sup 13}Cvalues of -29 {+-} 2{per_thousand}indicate that the isolated DOM is of terrestrial rather than aquatic origin. We conclude that young, hydrophilic carbon compounds of terrestrial origin are predominant in the samples investigated, and that the composition of the aquatic DOM in the studied boreal forest catchments is rather stable during low to intermediate flow conditions.},
doi = {10.1007/s10533-006-9022-x},
journal = {Biogeochemistry},
number = ,
volume = 80,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • Here, soil erosion continuously redistributes soil and associated soil organic matter (SOM) on the Earth's surface, with important implications for biogeochemical cycling of essential elements and terrestrial carbon sequestration. Despite the importance of soil erosion, surprisingly few studies have evaluated the sources of eroded carbon (C). We used natural abundance levels of the stable and radioactive isotopes of C ( 13C and 14C) and stable isotope of nitrogen ( 15N) to elucidate the origins of SOM eroded from low-order catchments along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada of California, USA. Our work was conducted in two relatively undisturbed catchmentsmore » (low elevation = 1800 m, and high elevation = 2300 m) of the Kings River Experimental Watersheds (KREW) in the Sierra National Forest. Sediment captured in basins at the outlet of each gauged watershed were compared to possible source materials, which included: upland surficial organic horizons (i.e., forest floor) and mineral soils (0–0.6 m) from three landform positions (i.e., crest, backslope, and toeslope), stream bank soils (0–0.6 m), and stream-bed materials (0–0.05 m). We found that most of the organic matter (OM) in the captured sediments was composed of O-horizon material that had high C concentrations. Radiocarbon analyses also showed that the captured OM is composed of modern (post-1950) C, with fraction modern values at or above 1.0. Our results suggest that surface (sheet) erosion, as opposed to channeling through established streams and episodic mass wasting events, is likely the largest source of sediment exported out of these minimally disturbed, headwater catchments. The erosional export of sediment with a high concentration of C, especially in the form of relatively undecomposed litter from the O horizon, suggests that a large fraction of the exported C is likely to be decomposed during or after erosion; hence, it is unlikely that soil erosion acts as a significant net sink for atmospheric CO 2 in these low-order, temperate forest catchments.« less
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  • Climate warming is projected to increase the frequency and severity of wildfires in boreal forests, and increased wildfire activity may alter the large soil carbon (C) stocks in boreal forests. Changes in boreal soil C stocks that result from increased wildfire activity will be regulated in part by the response of microbial decomposition to fire, but post-fire changes in microbial decomposition are poorly understood. Here, we investigate the response of microbial decomposition to a boreal forest fire in interior Alaska and test the mechanisms that control post-fire changes in microbial decomposition. We used a reciprocal transplant between a recently burnedmore » boreal forest stand and a late successional boreal forest stand to test how post-fire changes in abiotic conditions, soil organic matter (SOM) composition, and soil microbial communities influence microbial decomposition. We found that SOM decomposing at the burned site lost 30.9% less mass over two years than SOM decomposing at the unburned site, indicating that post-fire changes in abiotic conditions suppress microbial decomposition. Our results suggest that moisture availability is one abiotic factor that constrains microbial decomposition in recently burned forests. In addition, we observed that burned SOM decomposed more slowly than unburned SOM, but the exact nature of SOM changes in the recently burned stand are unclear. Finally, we found no evidence that post-fire changes in soil microbial community composition significantly affect decomposition. Taken together, our study has demonstrated that boreal forest fires can suppress microbial decomposition due to post-fire changes in abiotic factors and the composition of SOM. Models that predict the consequences of increased wildfires for C storage in boreal forests may increase their predictive power by incorporating the observed negative response of microbial decomposition to boreal wildfires.« less
  • Accurately quantifying methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from beef operations in China is necessary to evaluate the contribution of beef cattle to greenhouse gas budgets at the national and global level. Methane and N{sub 2}O emissions from two intensive beef feedlots in the North China Plain, one with a restricted feeding strategy and high manure collection frequency and the other with an ad libitum feeding strategy and low manure collection frequency, were quantified in the fall and spring seasons using an inverse dispersion technique. The diel pattern of CH{sub 4} from the beef feedlot with anmore » ad libitum feed strategy (single peak during a day) differed from that under a restricted feeding condition (multiple peaks during a day), but little difference in the diel pattern of N{sub 2}O emissions between two feeding strategies was observed. The two-season average CH{sub 4} emission rates of the two intensive feedlots were 230 and 198 g CH{sub 4} animal{sup −1} d{sup −1} and accounted for 6.7% and 6.8% of the gross energy intake, respectively, indicating little impact of the feeding strategy and manure collection frequency on the CH{sub 4} conversion factor at the feedlot level. However, the average N{sub 2}O emission rates (21.2 g N{sub 2}O animal{sup −1} d{sup −1}) and conversion factor (8.5%) of the feedlot with low manure collection frequency were approximately 131% and 174% greater, respectively, than the feedlot under high frequency conditions, which had a N{sub 2}O emission rate and conversion factor of 9.2 g N{sub 2}O animal{sup −1} d{sup −1} and 3.1%, respectively, indicating that increasing manure collection frequency played an important role in reducing N{sub 2}O emissions from beef feedlots. In addition, comparison indicated that China’s beef and dairy cattle in feedlots appeared to have similar CH{sub 4} conversion factors. - Highlights: • CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from China’s beef feedlots were provided in the first time. • Feeding strategies determined the diurnal pattern of feedlot CH{sub 4} emission. • Frequency of manure collection played an important role in N{sub 2}O from feedlots.« less