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Title: Shear-slip analysis in multiphase fluid-flow reservoir engineeringap plications using TOUGH-FLAC

Abstract

This paper describes and demonstrates the use of the coupledTOUGH-FLAC simulator for geomechanical shear-slip (failure) analysis inmultiphase fluid-flow reservoir-engineering applications. Two approachesfor analyzing shear-slip are described, one using continuum stress-strainanalysis and another using discrete fault analysis. The use of shear-slipanalysis in TOUGH-FLAC is demonstrated on application examples related toCO2 sequestration and geothermal energy extraction. In the case of CO2sequestration, the shear-slip analysis is used to evaluate maximumsustainable CO2-injection pressure under increasing reservoir pressure,whereas in the case of geothermal energy extraction, the shear-slipanalysis is used to study induced seismicity during steam productionunder decreasing reservoir pressure and temperature.

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley NationalLaboratory, Berkeley, CA (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
928450
Report Number(s):
LBNL-63353
BnR: 600303000; TRN: US200815%%578
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: TOUGH Symposium 2006, Berkeley, CA, 15-17 May2006
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54; FLUID FLOW; GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; PRODUCTION; RESERVOIR ENGINEERING; RESERVOIR PRESSURE; SEISMICITY; SIMULATORS; STEAM

Citation Formats

Rutqvist, Jonny, Birkholzer, Jens, Cappa, Frederic, Oldenburg,Curt, and Tsang, Chin-Fu. Shear-slip analysis in multiphase fluid-flow reservoir engineeringap plications using TOUGH-FLAC. United States: N. p., 2006. Web.
Rutqvist, Jonny, Birkholzer, Jens, Cappa, Frederic, Oldenburg,Curt, & Tsang, Chin-Fu. Shear-slip analysis in multiphase fluid-flow reservoir engineeringap plications using TOUGH-FLAC. United States.
Rutqvist, Jonny, Birkholzer, Jens, Cappa, Frederic, Oldenburg,Curt, and Tsang, Chin-Fu. Sun . "Shear-slip analysis in multiphase fluid-flow reservoir engineeringap plications using TOUGH-FLAC". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/928450.
@article{osti_928450,
title = {Shear-slip analysis in multiphase fluid-flow reservoir engineeringap plications using TOUGH-FLAC},
author = {Rutqvist, Jonny and Birkholzer, Jens and Cappa, Frederic and Oldenburg,Curt and Tsang, Chin-Fu},
abstractNote = {This paper describes and demonstrates the use of the coupledTOUGH-FLAC simulator for geomechanical shear-slip (failure) analysis inmultiphase fluid-flow reservoir-engineering applications. Two approachesfor analyzing shear-slip are described, one using continuum stress-strainanalysis and another using discrete fault analysis. The use of shear-slipanalysis in TOUGH-FLAC is demonstrated on application examples related toCO2 sequestration and geothermal energy extraction. In the case of CO2sequestration, the shear-slip analysis is used to evaluate maximumsustainable CO2-injection pressure under increasing reservoir pressure,whereas in the case of geothermal energy extraction, the shear-slipanalysis is used to study induced seismicity during steam productionunder decreasing reservoir pressure and temperature.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}

Conference:
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  • This paper presents recent advancement in and applications of TOUGH-FLAC, a simulator for multiphase fluid flow and geomechanics. The TOUGH-FLAC simulator links the TOUGH family multiphase fluid and heat transport codes with the commercial FLAC{sup 3D} geomechanical simulator. The most significant new TOUGH-FLAC development in the past few years is a revised architecture, enabling a more rigorous and tight coupling procedure with improved computational efficiency. The applications presented in this paper are related to modeling of crustal deformations caused by deep underground fluid movements and pressure changes as a result of both industrial activities (the In Salah CO{sub 2} Storagemore » Project and the Geysers Geothermal Field) and natural events (the 1960s Matsushiro Earthquake Swarm). Finally, the paper provides some perspectives on the future of TOUGH-FLAC in light of its applicability to practical problems and the need for high-performance computing capabilities for field-scale problems, such as industrial-scale CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced geothermal systems. It is concluded that despite some limitations to fully adapting a commercial code such as FLAC{sup 3D} for some specialized research and computational needs, TOUGH-FLAC is likely to remain a pragmatic simulation approach, with an increasing number of users in both academia and industry.« less
  • This paper demonstrates the use of coupled fluid flow andgeomechanical fault slip (fault reactivation) analysis to estimate themaximum sustainable injection pressure during geological sequestration ofCO2. Two numerical modeling approaches for analyzing faultslip areapplied, one using continuum stress-strain analysis and the other usingdiscrete fault analysis. The results of these two approaches to numericalfault-slip analyses are compared to the results of a more conventionalanalytical fault-slip analysis that assumes simplified reservoirgeometry. It is shown that the simplified analytical fault-slip analysismay lead to either overestimation or underestimation of the maximumsustainable injection pressure because it cannot resolve importantgeometrical factors associated with the injection induced spatialevolutionmore » of fluid pressure and stress. We conclude that a fully couplednumerical analysis can more accurately account for the spatial evolutionof both insitu stresses and fluid pressure, and therefore results in amore accurate estimation of the maximum sustainable CO2 injectionpressure.« less
  • We present an investigation of the effect of multi-phase pore fluid distributions on the seismic velocity of saturated rock as a function of temperature and pressure. The purpose is to show how different fluid distributions might result in different seismic signatures. This is the rock physics link between reservoir simulation and seismic monitoring of hydrocarbon; (1) Uniform effective fluid, (2) Fluid in patches, and (3) Laminated fluid. The latter two models have heterogeneous distributions, and demonstrate that they have the same velocity characteristics. We used Beaver sandstone with a porosity of 6.4% and 5 MPa confining pressure as the rockmore » matrix for our calculations. The uniform fluid model shows poor sensitivity to fluid saturation, with a variation in velocity of less than 1% when gas saturation exceeds 2%. The heterogeneous models show a fairly linear dependence of velocity on saturation with a variation of 7%. We also investigate the effect of oil distillation on seismic velocities during steam flooding. Comparisons velocities calculated using the patches model at temperature of 20{degrees}C and 150{degrees}C, the choice of hydrocarbon components is more critical at high values of oil saturation than at low values of oil saturation. In regions of high oil saturation, there is less than 0.5% variation in velocity using these components. The velocity variation using the effective fluid model at the same conditions is less than 0.5% over the entire range of gas saturation greater than 2%, indicating that the choice of hydrocarbons is not as critical as in the patches model.« less
  • Modeling the extreme thermodynamic conditions encountered in the near-ground surface atmosphere-soil boundary in desert environments requires a robust code that is capable of simulating fully-coupled flow and transports of water liquid, water vapor, and heat in porous and fractured media - where flow is usually laminar, and the atmosphere - where flow is usually turbulent. A-TOUGh (Atmospheric TOUGH) is developed to simulate the transport of air, vapor, and heat through an atmospheric boundary layer coupled with the transport of moisture, an air-vapor mixture, and heat through porous or fractured media. The three-dimensional nature of the code allows simulation of roughmore » terrain and heterogeneous subsurface conditions encountered at site such as Yucca Mountain. The allowable range of temperatures (-50{degrees}C to 200{degrees}C) and relative humidities (0 to 100 percent) for this new code permits the simulation of complex processes such as condensation in fractures during the winter season. A-TOUGH can also be used to predict the effect that ventilation shafts and tunnels in underground facilities have on moisture conditions in the host fractured rocks over extended periods of time. A-TOUGH has been tested with several simple and complicated problem sets, including a two-dimensional low-level radioactive waste trench with a layered cap. This paper: (1) summarizes the physical and mathematical approach used by previous investigators and the current study to simulate near-surface unsaturated flow processes, (2) briefly describes the numerical procedures incorporated in A-TOUGH, and (3) presents the results of a calibration simulation based on published field data.« less
  • The long-term effect of changes in atmospheric climatological conditions on subsurface hydrological conditions in the unsaturated zone in and environments is an important factor in defining the performance of a high-level and low-level radioactive waste repositories in geological environment. Computer simulation coupled with paleohydrological studies can be used to understand and quantify the potential impact of future climatological conditions on repository performance. A-TOUGH efficiently simulates (given current state-of-the-art technology) the physical processes involved in the near-surface atmosphere and its effect on subsurface conditions. This efficiency is due to the numerical techniques used in TOUGH and the efficient computational techniques usedmore » in V-TOUGH to solve non-linear thermodynamic equations that govern the flux of vapor and energy within subsurface porous and fractured media and between these media and the atmosphere.« less