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Title: Infrared and Optical Observations of GRB 030115 and its ExtremelyRed Host Galaxy: Implications for Dark Bursts

Abstract

We present near-infrared (NIR) and optical observations ofthe afterglow of GRB 030115. Discovered in aninfrared search at Kitt Peak5 hr after the burst trigger, this afterglow is the faintest everobserved in the R band at such an early epoch and exhibits very redcolors, with R-K~;6. The optical magnitude of the afterglow of GRB 030115is fainter than many upper limits for other bursts, suggesting thatwithout early NIR observations it would have been classified as a "dark"burst. Both the color and optical magnitude of the afterglow are likelydue to dust extinction atmoderate redshift z>2 and indicate that atleast some optical afterglows are very faint due to dust along the lineof sight.Multicolor Hubble Space Telescope observations were also takenof the host galaxy and the surrounding field. Photometric redshifts implythat the host and a substantial number of faint galaxies in the field areat z 2:5. The overdensity of galaxies is sufficiently great that GRB030115 may have occurred in a rich high-redshift cluster. The host galaxyshows extremely red colors (R-K = 5) and is the first GRB host to beclassified as an extremely red object (ERO). Some of the galaxiessurrounding the host also show very red colors, while the majority of theclusterare much bluer, indicatingmore » ongoing unobscured star formation. Asit is thought that much of high-redshift starformation occurs in highlyobscured environments, it may well be that GRB 030115 represents atransition object, between the relatively unobscured afterglows seen todate and a population of objects that are very heavily extinguished, evenin the NIR.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
COLLABORATION - NASA
OSTI Identifier:
927327
Report Number(s):
LBNL-63092
Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X; ASJOAB; R&D Project: KS0606; BnR: KA1401030; TRN: US0803180
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 647; Related Information: Journal Publication Date: 2006
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72; AFTERGLOW; COLOR; DUSTS; GALAXIES; STARS; TELESCOPES; gamma-ray-bursts supernovae

Citation Formats

Levan, Andrew, Fruchter, Andrew, Rhoads, James, Mobasher, Bahram, Tanvir, Nial, Gorosabel, Javier, Rol, Evert, Kouveliotou, Chryssa, Dell'Antonio, Ian, Merrill, Michael, Bergeron, Eddie, Castro Ceron, JosMar a, Masetti, Nicola, Vreeswijk, Paul, Antonelli, Angelo, Bersier,David, Castro-Tirado, Alberto, Fynbo, Johan, Garnavich, Peter, Holland,Stephen, Hjorth, Jens, Nugent, Peter, Pian, Elena, Smette, Alain, Thomsen, Bjarne, Thorsett, Stephen E., and Wijers, Ralph. Infrared and Optical Observations of GRB 030115 and its ExtremelyRed Host Galaxy: Implications for Dark Bursts. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1086/503595.
Levan, Andrew, Fruchter, Andrew, Rhoads, James, Mobasher, Bahram, Tanvir, Nial, Gorosabel, Javier, Rol, Evert, Kouveliotou, Chryssa, Dell'Antonio, Ian, Merrill, Michael, Bergeron, Eddie, Castro Ceron, JosMar a, Masetti, Nicola, Vreeswijk, Paul, Antonelli, Angelo, Bersier,David, Castro-Tirado, Alberto, Fynbo, Johan, Garnavich, Peter, Holland,Stephen, Hjorth, Jens, Nugent, Peter, Pian, Elena, Smette, Alain, Thomsen, Bjarne, Thorsett, Stephen E., & Wijers, Ralph. Infrared and Optical Observations of GRB 030115 and its ExtremelyRed Host Galaxy: Implications for Dark Bursts. United States. doi:10.1086/503595.
Levan, Andrew, Fruchter, Andrew, Rhoads, James, Mobasher, Bahram, Tanvir, Nial, Gorosabel, Javier, Rol, Evert, Kouveliotou, Chryssa, Dell'Antonio, Ian, Merrill, Michael, Bergeron, Eddie, Castro Ceron, JosMar a, Masetti, Nicola, Vreeswijk, Paul, Antonelli, Angelo, Bersier,David, Castro-Tirado, Alberto, Fynbo, Johan, Garnavich, Peter, Holland,Stephen, Hjorth, Jens, Nugent, Peter, Pian, Elena, Smette, Alain, Thomsen, Bjarne, Thorsett, Stephen E., and Wijers, Ralph. Mon . "Infrared and Optical Observations of GRB 030115 and its ExtremelyRed Host Galaxy: Implications for Dark Bursts". United States. doi:10.1086/503595.
@article{osti_927327,
title = {Infrared and Optical Observations of GRB 030115 and its ExtremelyRed Host Galaxy: Implications for Dark Bursts},
author = {Levan, Andrew and Fruchter, Andrew and Rhoads, James and Mobasher, Bahram and Tanvir, Nial and Gorosabel, Javier and Rol, Evert and Kouveliotou, Chryssa and Dell'Antonio, Ian and Merrill, Michael and Bergeron, Eddie and Castro Ceron, JosMar a and Masetti, Nicola and Vreeswijk, Paul and Antonelli, Angelo and Bersier,David and Castro-Tirado, Alberto and Fynbo, Johan and Garnavich, Peter and Holland,Stephen and Hjorth, Jens and Nugent, Peter and Pian, Elena and Smette, Alain and Thomsen, Bjarne and Thorsett, Stephen E. and Wijers, Ralph},
abstractNote = {We present near-infrared (NIR) and optical observations ofthe afterglow of GRB 030115. Discovered in aninfrared search at Kitt Peak5 hr after the burst trigger, this afterglow is the faintest everobserved in the R band at such an early epoch and exhibits very redcolors, with R-K~;6. The optical magnitude of the afterglow of GRB 030115is fainter than many upper limits for other bursts, suggesting thatwithout early NIR observations it would have been classified as a "dark"burst. Both the color and optical magnitude of the afterglow are likelydue to dust extinction atmoderate redshift z>2 and indicate that atleast some optical afterglows are very faint due to dust along the lineof sight.Multicolor Hubble Space Telescope observations were also takenof the host galaxy and the surrounding field. Photometric redshifts implythat the host and a substantial number of faint galaxies in the field areat z 2:5. The overdensity of galaxies is sufficiently great that GRB030115 may have occurred in a rich high-redshift cluster. The host galaxyshows extremely red colors (R-K = 5) and is the first GRB host to beclassified as an extremely red object (ERO). Some of the galaxiessurrounding the host also show very red colors, while the majority of theclusterare much bluer, indicating ongoing unobscured star formation. Asit is thought that much of high-redshift starformation occurs in highlyobscured environments, it may well be that GRB 030115 represents atransition object, between the relatively unobscured afterglows seen todate and a population of objects that are very heavily extinguished, evenin the NIR.},
doi = {10.1086/503595},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = ,
volume = 647,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2006},
month = {Mon May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2006}
}
  • GRB 090417B was an unusually long burst with a T{sub 90} duration of at least 2130 s and a multi-peaked light curve at energies of 15-150 keV. It was optically dark and has been associated with a bright star-forming galaxy at a redshift of 0.345 that is broadly similar to the Milky Way. This is one of the few cases where a host galaxy has been clearly identified for a dark gamma-ray burst (GRB) and thus an ideal candidate for studying the origin of dark bursts. We find that the dark nature of GRB 090417B cannot be explained by highmore » redshift, incomplete observations, or unusual physics in the production of the afterglow. Assuming the standard relativistic fireball model for the afterglow we find that the optical flux is at least 2.5 mag fainter than predicted by the X-ray flux. The Swift/XRT X-ray data are consistent with the afterglow being obscured by a dense, localized sheet of dust approximately 30-80 pc from the burst along the line of sight. Our results suggest that this dust sheet imparts an extinction of A{sub V} {approx_gt} 12 mag, which is sufficient to explain the missing optical flux. GRB 090417B is an example of a GRBs that is dark due to the localized dust structure in its host galaxy.« less
  • We present the optical discovery and subarcsecond optical and X-ray localization of the afterglow of the short GRB 120804A, as well as optical, near-IR, and radio detections of its host galaxy. X-ray observations with Swift/XRT, Chandra, and XMM-Newton extending to {delta}t Almost-Equal-To 19 days reveal a single power-law decline. The optical afterglow is faint, and comparison to the X-ray flux indicates that GRB 120804A is ''dark'', with a rest-frame extinction of A {sup host}{sub V} Almost-Equal-To 2.5 mag (at z = 1.3). The intrinsic neutral hydrogen column density inferred from the X-ray spectrum, N{sub H,{sub int}}(z = 1.3) Almost-Equal-To 2more » Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}, is commensurate with the large extinction. The host galaxy exhibits red optical/near-IR colors. Equally important, JVLA observations at Almost-Equal-To 0.9-11 days reveal a constant flux density of F{sub {nu}}(5.8 GHz) = 35 {+-} 4 {mu}Jy and an optically thin spectrum, unprecedented for GRB afterglows, but suggestive instead of emission from the host galaxy. The optical/near-IR and radio fluxes are well fit with the scaled spectral energy distribution of the local ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Arp 220 at z Almost-Equal-To 1.3, with a resulting star formation rate of x Almost-Equal-To 300 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The inferred extinction and small projected offset (2.2 {+-} 1.2 kpc) are also consistent with the ULIRG scenario, as is the presence of a companion galaxy at the same redshift and with a separation of about 11 kpc. The limits on radio afterglow emission, in conjunction with the observed X-ray and optical emission, require a circumburst density of n {approx} 10{sup -3} cm{sup -3}, an isotropic-equivalent energy scale of E{sub {gamma},{sub iso}} Almost-Equal-To E{sub K,{sub iso}} Almost-Equal-To 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 51} erg, and a jet opening angle of {theta}{sub j} {approx}> 11 Degree-Sign . The expected fraction of luminous infrared galaxies in the short GRB host sample is {approx}0.01 and {approx}0.25 (for pure stellar mass and star formation weighting, respectively). Thus, the observed fraction of two events in about 25 hosts (GRBs 120804A and 100206A) appears to support our previous conclusion that short GRBs track both stellar mass and star formation activity.« less
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  • The Swift-discovered GRB 080319B was by far the most distant source ever observed at naked-eye brightness, reaching a peak apparent magnitude of 5.3 at a redshift of z = 0.937. We present our late-time optical (Hubble Space Telescope, Gemini, and Very Large Telescope) and X-ray (Chandra) observations, which confirm that an achromatic break occurred in the power-law afterglow light curve at {approx}11 days post-burst. This most likely indicates that the gamma-ray burst (GRB) outflow was collimated, which for a uniform jet would imply a total energy in the jet E{sub jet} {approx}> 10{sup 52} erg. Our observations also show amore » late-time excess of red light, which is well explained if the GRB was accompanied by a supernova (SN), similar to those seen in some other long-duration GRBs. The latest observations are dominated by light from the host and show that the GRB took place in a faint dwarf galaxy (r(AB) {approx} 27.0, rest frame M{sub B} {approx} -17.2). This galaxy is small even by the standards of other GRB hosts, which is suggestive of a low-metallicity environment. Intriguingly, the properties of this extreme event-a small host and bright SN-are entirely typical of the very low luminosity bursts such as GRB 980425 and GRB 060218.« less
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