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Title: Special Issue on geophysics applied to detection and discrimination of unexploded ordnance

Abstract

Unexploded ordnance (UXO) presents serious problems in Europe, Asia, as well as in the United States. Explosives and mines from World War I and World War II still turn up at European and Asian construction sites, backyard gardens, beaches, wildlife preserves and former military training grounds. The high rate of failure among munitions from 60-90 years ago is cited as one of the main reasons for such a high level of contamination. Apart from war activities, military training has resulted in many uncovered ordnance. It is especially true in the United States, where most UXO has resulted from decades of military training, exercises, and testing of weapons systems. Such UXO contamination prevents civilian land use, threatens public safety, and causes significant environmental concern. In light of this problem, there has been considerable interest shown by federal, state, and local authorities in UXO remediation at former U.S. Department of Defense sites. The ultimate goal of UXO remediation is to permit safe public use of contaminated lands. A Defense Science Board Task Force Report from 1998 lists some 1,500 sites, comprising approximately 15 million acres, that potentially contain UXO. The UXO-related activity for these sites consists of identifying the subareas that actuallymore » contain UXO, and then locating and removing the UXO, or fencing the hazardous areas off from the public. The criteria for clearance depend on the intended land end-use and residual hazard risk that is deemed acceptable. Success in detecting UXO depends on the ordnance's size, metal content, and depth of burial, as well as on the ability of geophysical systems to detect ordnance in the presence of metallic fragments from exploded UXO and other metal clutter.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Earth Sciences Division
OSTI Identifier:
927147
Report Number(s):
LBNL-146E
Journal ID: ISSN 0926-9851; JAGPEA; TRN: US200810%%225
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Geophysics; Journal Volume: 61; Related Information: Journal Publication Date: 2007
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54; 58; ASIA; CLEARANCE; CONSTRUCTION; CONTAMINATION; DETECTION; EUROPE; EXPLOSIVES; GEOPHYSICS; LAND USE; MILITARY EQUIPMENT; SAFETY; TESTING; TRAINING; US DOD; WEAPONS; geophysics electromagnetic monitoring detection unexploded ordnance

Citation Formats

Gasperikova, Erika, Gasperikova, Erika, and Beard, Les P. Special Issue on geophysics applied to detection and discrimination of unexploded ordnance. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jappgeo.2006.06.007.
Gasperikova, Erika, Gasperikova, Erika, & Beard, Les P. Special Issue on geophysics applied to detection and discrimination of unexploded ordnance. United States. doi:10.1016/j.jappgeo.2006.06.007.
Gasperikova, Erika, Gasperikova, Erika, and Beard, Les P. Mon . "Special Issue on geophysics applied to detection and discrimination of unexploded ordnance". United States. doi:10.1016/j.jappgeo.2006.06.007. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/927147.
@article{osti_927147,
title = {Special Issue on geophysics applied to detection and discrimination of unexploded ordnance},
author = {Gasperikova, Erika and Gasperikova, Erika and Beard, Les P.},
abstractNote = {Unexploded ordnance (UXO) presents serious problems in Europe, Asia, as well as in the United States. Explosives and mines from World War I and World War II still turn up at European and Asian construction sites, backyard gardens, beaches, wildlife preserves and former military training grounds. The high rate of failure among munitions from 60-90 years ago is cited as one of the main reasons for such a high level of contamination. Apart from war activities, military training has resulted in many uncovered ordnance. It is especially true in the United States, where most UXO has resulted from decades of military training, exercises, and testing of weapons systems. Such UXO contamination prevents civilian land use, threatens public safety, and causes significant environmental concern. In light of this problem, there has been considerable interest shown by federal, state, and local authorities in UXO remediation at former U.S. Department of Defense sites. The ultimate goal of UXO remediation is to permit safe public use of contaminated lands. A Defense Science Board Task Force Report from 1998 lists some 1,500 sites, comprising approximately 15 million acres, that potentially contain UXO. The UXO-related activity for these sites consists of identifying the subareas that actually contain UXO, and then locating and removing the UXO, or fencing the hazardous areas off from the public. The criteria for clearance depend on the intended land end-use and residual hazard risk that is deemed acceptable. Success in detecting UXO depends on the ordnance's size, metal content, and depth of burial, as well as on the ability of geophysical systems to detect ordnance in the presence of metallic fragments from exploded UXO and other metal clutter.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jappgeo.2006.06.007},
journal = {Journal of Applied Geophysics},
number = ,
volume = 61,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Efficient and reliable unexploded ordnance (UXO) site characterization is needed for decisions regarding future land use. There are several types of data available at UXO sites and geophysical signal maps are one of the most valuable sources of information. Incorporation of such information into site characterization requires a flexible and reliable methodology. Geostatistics allows one to account for exhaustive secondary information (i.e.,, known at every location within the field) in many different ways. Kriging and logistic regression were combined to map the probability of occurrence of at least one geophysical anomaly of interest, such as UXO, from a limited numbermore » of indicator data. Logistic regression is used to derive the trend from a geophysical signal map, and kriged residuals are added to the trend to estimate the probabilities of the presence of UXO at unsampled locations (simple kriging with varying local means or SKlm). Each location is identified for further remedial action if the estimated probability is greater than a given threshold. The technique is illustrated using a hypothetical UXO site generated by a UXO simulator, and a corresponding geophysical signal map. Indicator data are collected along two transects located within the site. Classification performances are then assessed by computing proportions of correct classification, false positive, false negative, and Kappa statistics. Two common approaches, one of which does not take any secondary information into account (ordinary indicator kriging) and a variant of common cokriging (collocated cokriging), were used for comparison purposes. Results indicate that accounting for exhaustive secondary information improves the overall characterization of UXO sites if an appropriate methodology, SKlm in this case, is used.« less
  • The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is operated by Battelle Memorial Institute for the U.S. Department of Energy. Since its inception in 1965 there has been a contingent of statisticians involved with environmental applications. In this article two of their current environmental statistics activities will be described. The first involves developing user-friendly software, Visual Sample Plan (VSP), that allows the user to generate statistically sound environmental sampling plans in two-dimensions through a visual interface. The second is an effort underway to develop methodology useful in efforts to delineate the location of unexploded ordnance (UXO).
  • The associated-particle technique (APT) will be presented for some diverse applications that include on the one hand, analyzing the body composition of live sheep and on the other, identifying the fillers of unexploded ordnance (UXO). What began with proof-of-concept studies using a large laboratory based 14 MeV neutron generator of the 'associated-particle' type, soon became possible for the first time to measure total body protein, fat and water simultaneously in live sheep using a compact field deployable associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG). This non-invasive technique offered the animal physiologist a tool to monitor the growth of an animal in responsemore » to new genetic, nutritional and pharmacologic methods for livestock improvement. While measurement of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) determined protein, fat and water because of the fixed stoichiometric proportions of these elements in these body components, the unique C/N and C/O ratios of high explosives revealed their identity in UXO. The algorithm that was developed and implemented to extract C, N and O counts from an APT generated gamma-ray spectrum will be presented together with the UXO investigations that involved preliminary proofof-concept studies and modeling with Monte Carlo produced synthetic spectra of 57-155 mm projectiles.« less
  • The science and technology of ferroelectric thin films and their applications have attracted many researchers and experienced tremendous progress in the past 20 years. The recent worldwide increase in commercial applications of ferroelectric devices such as smart cards based on nonvolatile ferroelectric random access memories is a symbol of both the maturity and the acceptance of the technology. The 21st International Symposium on Integrated Ferroelectrics (ISIF 2009), held on September 22 to October 2, 2009 in Colorado Springs, CO, provided a forum for the academic and national laboratories research community and industry to present and share their new findings, achievements,more » and opinions on integrated ferroelectrics and their applications. The International Symposium on Integrated Ferroelectrics hosted the ISIF 2009. This was the first year where the ISIF held the conference in its new format under the name of International Symposium on Integrated Functionalities. The General Chairs of the ISIF in consultation with the Advisory Board and the ISIF community decided to revise the focus of the conference in order to broaden the scope to the science and technology of multifunctional materials and devices. This decision was taken in view that a new paradigm in materials, materials integration, and devices is emerging with a view to the development of a new generation of micro- and nanoscale multifunctional devices. The program included three plenary presentations on diverse topics such as 'The Role of Nonvolatile Memory in Ubiquitous Computing,' 'Ferroelectrics and High Density Memory Technology,' 'Nanoscale Ferroelectrics and Interfaces: Size Effects,' four tutorial lectures on diverse topics, such as 'Magnetic Memory Applications,' 'Ferroelectrics and Ferroelectric Devices,' 'Challenges for High-K Dielectrics on High Mobility Channels,' 'Solar Cell Materials,' one poster session, and eight oral sessions. Thanks to the great efforts made by the ISIF organization committee and the session chairs, the conference successfully achieved its objectives and the work presented reflected very well the most recent advances of integrated ferroelectrics and their applications, as well as advances in other areas related to the new theme of Integrated Functionalities. Many aspects of ferroelectric, piezoelectric, high-K dielectric, magnetic, and phase change materials, including the science and technology of these materials in thin film form, integration with other thin film materials (metals or oxide electrodes), and fabrication of micro- and nanostructures based on these heterostructure layers, and device architecture and physics, were addressed from the experimental point of view. Work on theory and computer simulations of the mentioned materials and devices were discussed also with a view to the promising applications to multifunctional devices. In addition, the ISIF 2009 featured discussions of alternative nonvolatile memory concepts and materials, such as phase change memories, research on multiferroics and magnetoelectric materials, ferroelectric photovoltaics, and new directions on the science of perovskites such as biomolecular/polarizable interfaces, and bio-ferroelectric and other oxide interfaces. Following the standard submission and peer review process of Journal of Applied Physics, the selected papers presented in ISIF 2009 in Colorado Springs are published in this special issue. We believe that the papers in this special issue represent the forefront contributions to ISIF 2009 in the various areas of fundamental and applied science of integrated ferroelectrics and functionalities and their applications. We would like to take this opportunity to thank the following organizations and companies for their support and sponsorship for ISIF 2009, namely: Aixact Systems GMBH, Radiant Technologies, Symetrix Corporation, and Taylor and Francis Publishers. We would also like to thank the conference and session chairs, advisory and organizing committee members for their hard work that resulted in a very successful ISIF 2009, now in its new future-looking modality of Integrated Functionalities.« less