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Title: Test, Evaluation, and Demonstration of Practical Devices/Systems to Reduce Aerodynamic Drag of Tractor/Semitrailer Combination Unit Trucks

Abstract

Class 8 heavy-duty trucks account for over three-quarters of the total diesel fuel used by commercial trucks (trucks with GVWRs more than 10,000 pounds) in the United States each year. At the highway speeds at which these trucks travel (i.e., 60 mph or greater), aerodynamic drag is a major part of total horsepower needed to move the truck down the highway, Reductions in aerodynamic drag can yield measurable benefits in fuel economy through the use of relatively inexpensive and simple devices. The goal of this project was to examine a number of aerodynamic drag reduction devices and systems and determine their effectiveness in reducing aerodynamic drag of Class 8 tractor/semitrailer combination-units, thus contributing to DOE's goal of reducing transportation petroleum use. The project team included major heavy truck manufacturers in the United States, along with the management and industry expertise of the Truck Manufacturers Association as the lead investigative organization. The Truck Manufacturers Association (TMA) is the national trade association representing the major North American manufacturers of Class 6-8 trucks (GVWRs over 19,500 lbs). Four major truck manufacturers participated in this project with TMA: Freightliner LLC; International Truck and Engine Corporation; Mack Trucks Inc.; and Volvo Trucks North America, Inc.more » Together, these manufacturers represent over three-quarters of total Class 8 truck sales in the United States. These four manufacturers pursued complementary research efforts as part of this project. The project work was separated into two phases conducted over a two-year period. In Phase I, candidate aerodynamic devices and systems were screened to focus research and development attention on devices that offered the most potential. This was accomplished using full-size vehicle tests, scale model tests, and computational fluid dynamics analyses. In Phase II, the most promising devices were installed on full-size trucks and their effect on fuel economy was determined, either through on-road testing or full-size wind tunnel testing. All of the manufacturers worked with devices and systems that offer practical solutions to reduce aerodynamic drag, accounting for functionality, durability, cost effectiveness, reliability, and maintainability. The project team members and their roles and responsibilities are shown in Figure 2-1. Figure 2-2 shows the Phase I and II project schedules for all four projects and associated management activities.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Truck Manufacturers Association
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
926158
DOE Contract Number:
FC26-04NT42117
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
02 PETROLEUM; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; AERODYNAMICS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; DIESEL FUELS; ENGINES; EVALUATION; FLUID MECHANICS; FUEL CONSUMPTION; MANAGEMENT; MANUFACTURERS; PETROLEUM; RELIABILITY; SALES; SCALE MODELS; SCHEDULES; TESTING; WIND TUNNELS

Citation Formats

Scott Smith, Karla Younessi, Matt Markstaller, Dan Schlesinger, Bhaskar Bhatnagar, Donald Smith, Bruno Banceu, Ron Schoon, V.K. Sharma, Mark Kachmarsky, Srikant Ghantae, Michael Sorrels, Conal Deedy, Justin Clark, Skip Yeakel, Michael D. Laughlin, Charlotte Seigler, and Sidney Diamond. Test, Evaluation, and Demonstration of Practical Devices/Systems to Reduce Aerodynamic Drag of Tractor/Semitrailer Combination Unit Trucks. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.2172/926158.
Scott Smith, Karla Younessi, Matt Markstaller, Dan Schlesinger, Bhaskar Bhatnagar, Donald Smith, Bruno Banceu, Ron Schoon, V.K. Sharma, Mark Kachmarsky, Srikant Ghantae, Michael Sorrels, Conal Deedy, Justin Clark, Skip Yeakel, Michael D. Laughlin, Charlotte Seigler, & Sidney Diamond. Test, Evaluation, and Demonstration of Practical Devices/Systems to Reduce Aerodynamic Drag of Tractor/Semitrailer Combination Unit Trucks. United States. doi:10.2172/926158.
Scott Smith, Karla Younessi, Matt Markstaller, Dan Schlesinger, Bhaskar Bhatnagar, Donald Smith, Bruno Banceu, Ron Schoon, V.K. Sharma, Mark Kachmarsky, Srikant Ghantae, Michael Sorrels, Conal Deedy, Justin Clark, Skip Yeakel, Michael D. Laughlin, Charlotte Seigler, and Sidney Diamond. Mon . "Test, Evaluation, and Demonstration of Practical Devices/Systems to Reduce Aerodynamic Drag of Tractor/Semitrailer Combination Unit Trucks". United States. doi:10.2172/926158. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/926158.
@article{osti_926158,
title = {Test, Evaluation, and Demonstration of Practical Devices/Systems to Reduce Aerodynamic Drag of Tractor/Semitrailer Combination Unit Trucks},
author = {Scott Smith and Karla Younessi and Matt Markstaller and Dan Schlesinger and Bhaskar Bhatnagar and Donald Smith and Bruno Banceu and Ron Schoon and V.K. Sharma and Mark Kachmarsky and Srikant Ghantae and Michael Sorrels and Conal Deedy and Justin Clark and Skip Yeakel and Michael D. Laughlin and Charlotte Seigler and Sidney Diamond},
abstractNote = {Class 8 heavy-duty trucks account for over three-quarters of the total diesel fuel used by commercial trucks (trucks with GVWRs more than 10,000 pounds) in the United States each year. At the highway speeds at which these trucks travel (i.e., 60 mph or greater), aerodynamic drag is a major part of total horsepower needed to move the truck down the highway, Reductions in aerodynamic drag can yield measurable benefits in fuel economy through the use of relatively inexpensive and simple devices. The goal of this project was to examine a number of aerodynamic drag reduction devices and systems and determine their effectiveness in reducing aerodynamic drag of Class 8 tractor/semitrailer combination-units, thus contributing to DOE's goal of reducing transportation petroleum use. The project team included major heavy truck manufacturers in the United States, along with the management and industry expertise of the Truck Manufacturers Association as the lead investigative organization. The Truck Manufacturers Association (TMA) is the national trade association representing the major North American manufacturers of Class 6-8 trucks (GVWRs over 19,500 lbs). Four major truck manufacturers participated in this project with TMA: Freightliner LLC; International Truck and Engine Corporation; Mack Trucks Inc.; and Volvo Trucks North America, Inc. Together, these manufacturers represent over three-quarters of total Class 8 truck sales in the United States. These four manufacturers pursued complementary research efforts as part of this project. The project work was separated into two phases conducted over a two-year period. In Phase I, candidate aerodynamic devices and systems were screened to focus research and development attention on devices that offered the most potential. This was accomplished using full-size vehicle tests, scale model tests, and computational fluid dynamics analyses. In Phase II, the most promising devices were installed on full-size trucks and their effect on fuel economy was determined, either through on-road testing or full-size wind tunnel testing. All of the manufacturers worked with devices and systems that offer practical solutions to reduce aerodynamic drag, accounting for functionality, durability, cost effectiveness, reliability, and maintainability. The project team members and their roles and responsibilities are shown in Figure 2-1. Figure 2-2 shows the Phase I and II project schedules for all four projects and associated management activities.},
doi = {10.2172/926158},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Apr 30 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Mon Apr 30 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}

Technical Report:

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  • Aerodynamic drag tests were performed on a conventional cab-over-engine tractor with a 45-foot trailer and five commercially available or potentially available add-on devices using the coast-down method. The tests ranged in velocity from approximately 30 miles per hour to 65 miles per hour and included some flow visualization. A smooth, level runway at Edwards Air Force Base was used for the tests, and deceleration measurements were taken with both accelerometers and stopwatches. An evaluation of the drag reduction results obtained with each of the five add-on devices is presented.
  • Highway tests on a tractor-trailer with and without a rear-door drag reduction device have demonstrated a 13 horse-power savings for an 88'' x 94'' rear door at a vehicle speed of 55 mph. Greater savings would be realized for larger trailer door sizes and higher highway speeds. Implementation of such devices on high-use vehicles would provide a payback period of less than a year for installation of rear-door drag reduction devices.
  • A study of commercially available and prototype aerodynamic drag reduction devices which can be retrofitted onto this nation's trucks to achieve significant fuel savings by 1980 was conducted. The results of the study are presented in seven sections. An overview of the basic study results is given in the Summary Section, and a brief introduction to the general nature of the truck drag problem and the study scope is contained in Section 1. Section 2 provides a more detailed discussion of the aerodynamic drag problem and the characteristics of specific retrofit aerodynamic drag reduction devices which are in the productionmore » or prototype status. The results of a survey of fleet owners utilizing aerodynamic drag reduction devices and their experience with regard to fuel savings and operational factors are given in Section 3. Section 4 contains the results of economic analyses made to determine the cost-benefit effects of drag reduction devices. An analysis of the US truck population to which such drag reduction devices may be applicable and the fuel savings potential attendant to their use is given in Section 5. The significant elements of a program structured to encourage the utilization of aerodynamic drag reduction devices on trucks are defined in Section 6.« less
  • Aerodynamic drag tests were performed on a tractor-trailer combination using the coast-down method on a smooth, nearly level runway. The tests included an investigation of drag reduction obtained with add-on devices that are commercially available or under development. The tests covered tractor-trailer speeds ranging from approximately 35 to 65 miles per hour and included fuel consumption measurements. The study shows the effects of the various add-on devices on the aerodynamic drag, and for some devices on the fuel consumption. Results from a simulation of fuel consumption tests using a computer program are also included. (GRA)