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Title: FY05 HPCRM Annual Report: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Iron-Based Amorphous Metal Coatings

Abstract

New corrosion-resistant, iron-based amorphous metals have been identified from published data or developed through combinatorial synthesis, and tested to determine their relative corrosion resistance. Many of these materials can be applied as coatings with advanced thermal spray technology. Two compositions have corrosion resistance superior to wrought nickel-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022) in some very aggressive environments, including concentrated calcium-chloride brines at elevated temperature. Two Fe-based amorphous metal formulations have been found that appear to have corrosion resistance comparable to, or better than that of Ni-based Alloy C-22, based on breakdown potential and corrosion rate. Both Cr and Mo provide corrosion resistance, B enables glass formation, and Y lowers critical cooling rate (CCR). SAM1651 has yttrium added, and has a nominal critical cooling rate of only 80 Kelvin per second, while SAM2X7 (similar to SAM2X5) has no yttrium, and a relatively high critical cooling rate of 610 Kelvin per second. Both amorphous metal formulations have strengths and weaknesses. SAM1651 (yttrium added) has a low critical cooling rate (CCR), which enables it to be rendered as a completely amorphous thermal spray coating. Unfortunately, it is relatively difficult to atomize, with powders being irregular in shape. This causes the powder to bemore » difficult to pneumatically convey during thermal spray deposition. Gas atomized SAM1651 powder has required cryogenic milling to eliminate irregularities that make flow difficult. SAM2X5 (no yttrium) has a high critical cooling rate, which has caused problems associated with devitrification. SAM2X5 can be gas atomized to produce spherical powders of SAM2X5, which enable more facile thermal spray deposition. The reference material, nickel-based Alloy C-22, is an outstanding corrosion-resistant engineering material. Even so, crevice corrosion has been observed with C-22 in hot sodium chloride environments without buffer or inhibitor. Comparable metallic alloys such as SAM2X5 and SAM1651 may also experience crevice corrosion under sufficiently harsh conditions. Accelerated crevice corrosion tests are now being conducted to intentionally induce crevice corrosion, and to determine those environmental conditions where such localized attack occurs. Such materials are extremely hard, and provide enhanced resistance to abrasion and gouges (stress risers) from backfill operations, and possibly even tunnel boring. The hardness of Type 316L Stainless Steel is approximately 150 VHN, that of Alloy C-22 is approximately 250 VHN, and that of HVOF SAM2X5 ranges from 1100-1300 VHN. These new materials provide a viable coating option for repository engineers. SAM2X5 and SAM1651 coatings can be applied with thermal spray processes without any significant loss of corrosion resistance. Both Alloy C-22 and Type 316L stainless lose their resistance to corrosion during thermal spraying. Containers for the transportation, storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) with corrosion resistant coatings are envisioned. For example, an enhanced multi-purpose container (MPC) could be made with such coatings, leveraging existing experience in the fabrication of such containers. These coating materials could be used to protect the final closure weld on SNF/HLW disposal containers, eliminate need for stress mitigation. Integral drip shield could be produced by directly spraying it onto the disposal container, thereby eliminating the need for an expensive titanium drip shield. In specific areas where crevice corrosion is anticipated, such as the contact point between the disposal container and pallet, HVOF coatings could be used to buildup thickness, thereby selectively adding corrosion life where it is needed. Both SAM2X5 & SAM1651 have high boron content which enable them to absorb neutrons and therefore be used for criticality control in baskets. Alloy C-22 and 316L have no neutron absorber, and cannot be used for such functions. Borated stainless steel and G« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
926068
Report Number(s):
UCRL-TR-234800
TRN: US0802529
DOE Contract Number:
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ALLOYS; COATINGS; CONTAINERS; CORROSION; CORROSION RESISTANCE; CREVICE CORROSION; HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES; NEUTRON ABSORBERS; NUCLEAR FUELS; PERFORMANCE; SODIUM CHLORIDES; SPRAY COATING; STAINLESS STEELS; YTTRIUM

Citation Formats

Farmer, J, Choi, J, Haslam, J, Day, S, Yang, N, Headley, T, Lucadamo, G, Yio, J, Chames, J, Gardea, A, Clift, M, Blue, G, Peters, W, Rivard, J, Harper, D, Swank, D, Bayles, R, Lemieux, E, Brown, R, Wolejsza, T, Aprigliano, L, Branagan, D, Marshall, M, Meacham, B, Aprigliano, L, Branagan, D, Marshall, M, Meacham, B, Lavernia, E, Schoenung, J, Ajdelsztajn, L, Dannenberg, J, Graeve, O, Lewandowski, J, Perepezko, J, Hildal, K, Kaufman, L, and Boudreau, J. FY05 HPCRM Annual Report: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Iron-Based Amorphous Metal Coatings. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.2172/926068.
Farmer, J, Choi, J, Haslam, J, Day, S, Yang, N, Headley, T, Lucadamo, G, Yio, J, Chames, J, Gardea, A, Clift, M, Blue, G, Peters, W, Rivard, J, Harper, D, Swank, D, Bayles, R, Lemieux, E, Brown, R, Wolejsza, T, Aprigliano, L, Branagan, D, Marshall, M, Meacham, B, Aprigliano, L, Branagan, D, Marshall, M, Meacham, B, Lavernia, E, Schoenung, J, Ajdelsztajn, L, Dannenberg, J, Graeve, O, Lewandowski, J, Perepezko, J, Hildal, K, Kaufman, L, & Boudreau, J. FY05 HPCRM Annual Report: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Iron-Based Amorphous Metal Coatings. United States. doi:10.2172/926068.
Farmer, J, Choi, J, Haslam, J, Day, S, Yang, N, Headley, T, Lucadamo, G, Yio, J, Chames, J, Gardea, A, Clift, M, Blue, G, Peters, W, Rivard, J, Harper, D, Swank, D, Bayles, R, Lemieux, E, Brown, R, Wolejsza, T, Aprigliano, L, Branagan, D, Marshall, M, Meacham, B, Aprigliano, L, Branagan, D, Marshall, M, Meacham, B, Lavernia, E, Schoenung, J, Ajdelsztajn, L, Dannenberg, J, Graeve, O, Lewandowski, J, Perepezko, J, Hildal, K, Kaufman, L, and Boudreau, J. Thu . "FY05 HPCRM Annual Report: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Iron-Based Amorphous Metal Coatings". United States. doi:10.2172/926068. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/926068.
@article{osti_926068,
title = {FY05 HPCRM Annual Report: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Iron-Based Amorphous Metal Coatings},
author = {Farmer, J and Choi, J and Haslam, J and Day, S and Yang, N and Headley, T and Lucadamo, G and Yio, J and Chames, J and Gardea, A and Clift, M and Blue, G and Peters, W and Rivard, J and Harper, D and Swank, D and Bayles, R and Lemieux, E and Brown, R and Wolejsza, T and Aprigliano, L and Branagan, D and Marshall, M and Meacham, B and Aprigliano, L and Branagan, D and Marshall, M and Meacham, B and Lavernia, E and Schoenung, J and Ajdelsztajn, L and Dannenberg, J and Graeve, O and Lewandowski, J and Perepezko, J and Hildal, K and Kaufman, L and Boudreau, J},
abstractNote = {New corrosion-resistant, iron-based amorphous metals have been identified from published data or developed through combinatorial synthesis, and tested to determine their relative corrosion resistance. Many of these materials can be applied as coatings with advanced thermal spray technology. Two compositions have corrosion resistance superior to wrought nickel-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022) in some very aggressive environments, including concentrated calcium-chloride brines at elevated temperature. Two Fe-based amorphous metal formulations have been found that appear to have corrosion resistance comparable to, or better than that of Ni-based Alloy C-22, based on breakdown potential and corrosion rate. Both Cr and Mo provide corrosion resistance, B enables glass formation, and Y lowers critical cooling rate (CCR). SAM1651 has yttrium added, and has a nominal critical cooling rate of only 80 Kelvin per second, while SAM2X7 (similar to SAM2X5) has no yttrium, and a relatively high critical cooling rate of 610 Kelvin per second. Both amorphous metal formulations have strengths and weaknesses. SAM1651 (yttrium added) has a low critical cooling rate (CCR), which enables it to be rendered as a completely amorphous thermal spray coating. Unfortunately, it is relatively difficult to atomize, with powders being irregular in shape. This causes the powder to be difficult to pneumatically convey during thermal spray deposition. Gas atomized SAM1651 powder has required cryogenic milling to eliminate irregularities that make flow difficult. SAM2X5 (no yttrium) has a high critical cooling rate, which has caused problems associated with devitrification. SAM2X5 can be gas atomized to produce spherical powders of SAM2X5, which enable more facile thermal spray deposition. The reference material, nickel-based Alloy C-22, is an outstanding corrosion-resistant engineering material. Even so, crevice corrosion has been observed with C-22 in hot sodium chloride environments without buffer or inhibitor. Comparable metallic alloys such as SAM2X5 and SAM1651 may also experience crevice corrosion under sufficiently harsh conditions. Accelerated crevice corrosion tests are now being conducted to intentionally induce crevice corrosion, and to determine those environmental conditions where such localized attack occurs. Such materials are extremely hard, and provide enhanced resistance to abrasion and gouges (stress risers) from backfill operations, and possibly even tunnel boring. The hardness of Type 316L Stainless Steel is approximately 150 VHN, that of Alloy C-22 is approximately 250 VHN, and that of HVOF SAM2X5 ranges from 1100-1300 VHN. These new materials provide a viable coating option for repository engineers. SAM2X5 and SAM1651 coatings can be applied with thermal spray processes without any significant loss of corrosion resistance. Both Alloy C-22 and Type 316L stainless lose their resistance to corrosion during thermal spraying. Containers for the transportation, storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) with corrosion resistant coatings are envisioned. For example, an enhanced multi-purpose container (MPC) could be made with such coatings, leveraging existing experience in the fabrication of such containers. These coating materials could be used to protect the final closure weld on SNF/HLW disposal containers, eliminate need for stress mitigation. Integral drip shield could be produced by directly spraying it onto the disposal container, thereby eliminating the need for an expensive titanium drip shield. In specific areas where crevice corrosion is anticipated, such as the contact point between the disposal container and pallet, HVOF coatings could be used to buildup thickness, thereby selectively adding corrosion life where it is needed. Both SAM2X5 & SAM1651 have high boron content which enable them to absorb neutrons and therefore be used for criticality control in baskets. Alloy C-22 and 316L have no neutron absorber, and cannot be used for such functions. Borated stainless steel and G},
doi = {10.2172/926068},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Sep 20 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Thu Sep 20 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}

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