skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Multilayer Phase-Only Diffraction Gratings: Fabrication andApplication to EUV Optics

Abstract

The use of phase-only diffractive devices has long played an important role in advanced optical systems in varying fields. Such devices include gratings, diffractive and holographic optical elements, diffractive lenses, and phase-shift masks for advanced lithography. Extending such devices to the increasingly important regime of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths, however, is not trivial. Here, we present an effective fabrication and etch process enabling high-resolution patterning of Mo/Si multilayers for use in EUV phase devices, providing another method for fabrication of high numerical aperture diffractive devices or high-resolution EUV phase shift masks.

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley NationalLaboratory, Berkeley, CA (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Director. Office of Science. Basic EnergySciences
OSTI Identifier:
923472
Report Number(s):
LBNL-63272
R&D Project: 509201; BnR: KC0202020; TRN: US200804%%1179
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B; Journal Volume: 25; Journal Issue: 6; Related Information: Journal Publication Date: 11/2007
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36; APERTURES; DIFFRACTION GRATINGS; FABRICATION; LENSES; OPTICAL SYSTEMS; OPTICS; PHASE SHIFT; WAVELENGTHS

Citation Formats

Salmassi, Farhad, Gullikson, Eric M., Anderson, Erik H., and Naulleau, Patrick P. Multilayer Phase-Only Diffraction Gratings: Fabrication andApplication to EUV Optics. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1116/1.2798725.
Salmassi, Farhad, Gullikson, Eric M., Anderson, Erik H., & Naulleau, Patrick P. Multilayer Phase-Only Diffraction Gratings: Fabrication andApplication to EUV Optics. United States. doi:10.1116/1.2798725.
Salmassi, Farhad, Gullikson, Eric M., Anderson, Erik H., and Naulleau, Patrick P. Tue . "Multilayer Phase-Only Diffraction Gratings: Fabrication andApplication to EUV Optics". United States. doi:10.1116/1.2798725. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/923472.
@article{osti_923472,
title = {Multilayer Phase-Only Diffraction Gratings: Fabrication andApplication to EUV Optics},
author = {Salmassi, Farhad and Gullikson, Eric M. and Anderson, Erik H. and Naulleau, Patrick P.},
abstractNote = {The use of phase-only diffractive devices has long played an important role in advanced optical systems in varying fields. Such devices include gratings, diffractive and holographic optical elements, diffractive lenses, and phase-shift masks for advanced lithography. Extending such devices to the increasingly important regime of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths, however, is not trivial. Here, we present an effective fabrication and etch process enabling high-resolution patterning of Mo/Si multilayers for use in EUV phase devices, providing another method for fabrication of high numerical aperture diffractive devices or high-resolution EUV phase shift masks.},
doi = {10.1116/1.2798725},
journal = {Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B},
number = 6,
volume = 25,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Tue May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • Diffractive optics play an important role in a variety of fields such as astronomy, microscopy, and lithography. For the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region of the spectrum they have been difficult to make due to the extremely precise control required of their surface structure. We have developed a robust fabrication technique that achieves the required topographic control through the deposition of a thin film of Si on a Cr etch stop. We have fabricated binary phase gratings using this approach that have an efficiency of 80% of the theoretical maximum. The technique is applicable to any type of binary phase opticalmore » element.« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • Diffractive optics play an important role in a variety of fields such as astronomy, microscopy, and lithography. In the extreme ultraviolet region of the spectrum they have been difficult to make due to the extremely precise control required of their surface structure. We have developed a robust fabrication technique that achieves the required topographic control through the deposition of a thin film of Si on a Cr etch stop. We have fabricated binary phase gratings using this approach that have an efficiency of 80% of the theoretical maximum. This technique could be applicable to similar binary phase structures requiring precisemore » topography control.« less
  • We have developed a neutron phase contrast imaging method based on a grating interferometer setup. The principal constituents are two absorption gratings made of gadolinium and a phase modulating grating made of silicon. The design parameters of the setup, such as periodicity, structure heights of the gratings, and the distances between the gratings, are calculated. The fabrication of each grating is described in detail. The produced diffraction gratings were finally characterized within the setup, by locally evaluating the produced contrast (visibility) in each detector pixel, resulting in a visibility map over the whole grating size. An averaged value of 23%more » is achieved.« less
  • W/C and Co/SiO2 multilayer gratings have been fabricated by depositing a multilayer coating on the surface of laminar-type holographic master gratings. The diffraction efficiency was measured by reflectometers in the energy region of 0.6-8.0 keV at synchrotron radiation facilities as well as with an x-ray diffractometer at 8.05 keV. The Co/SiO2 and W/C multilayer gratings showed peak diffraction efficiencies of 0.47 and 0.38 at 6.0 and 8.0 keV, respectively. To our knowledge, the peak efficiency of the W/C multilayer grating is the highest measured with hard x rays. The diffraction efficiency of the Co/SiO2 multilayer gratings was higher than thatmore » of the W/C multilayer grating in the energy range of 2.5-6.0 keV. However, it decreased significantly in the energy above the K absorption edge of Co(7.71 keV). For the Co/SiO2 multilayer grating, the measured diffraction efficiencies agreed with the calculated curves assuming a rms roughness of?1 nm.« less