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Title: X-ray Thomson Scattering from Dense Plasmas

Abstract

Advances in the development of laser-produced x-ray sources have enabled a new class of high-energy density physics experiments. Powerful narrow-bandwidth x rays penetrate through short-lived hot dense states of matter and probe the physical properties with spectrally resolved x-ray scattering. Experiments from isochorically-heated plasmas with electron densities in the range of solid density and above have been demonstrated allowing for the first time exploration of the microscopic properties of dense matter regime close to strongly-coupled and Fermi degenerate conditions. Backscatter measurements have accessed the non-collective Compton scattering regime, which provides accurate diagnostic information on the temperature, density and ionization states. The forward scattering spectrum has been shown to measure the collective plasmon oscillations. Besides extracting the standard plasma parameters, density and temperature, forward scattering yields new observables such as a direct measure of collisions, quantum effects and detailed balance. In this talk, we will discuss new results important for applications of this technique for novel experiments in a wide range of research areas such as inertial confinement fusion, radiation-hydrodynamics, material science, and laboratory astrophysics.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
922323
Report Number(s):
UCRL-CONF-231033
TRN: US0801146
DOE Contract Number:
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Presented at: 49the Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics, orlando, FL, United States, Nov 12 - Nov 16, 2007
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; ASTROPHYSICS; COMPTON EFFECT; ELECTRONS; EXPLORATION; INERTIAL CONFINEMENT; IONIZATION; OSCILLATIONS; PHYSICAL PROPERTIES; PHYSICS; PLASMA; PLASMONS; PROBES; SCATTERING; THOMSON SCATTERING; X-RAY SOURCES

Citation Formats

Glenzer, S. X-ray Thomson Scattering from Dense Plasmas. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Glenzer, S. X-ray Thomson Scattering from Dense Plasmas. United States.
Glenzer, S. Mon . "X-ray Thomson Scattering from Dense Plasmas". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/922323.
@article{osti_922323,
title = {X-ray Thomson Scattering from Dense Plasmas},
author = {Glenzer, S},
abstractNote = {Advances in the development of laser-produced x-ray sources have enabled a new class of high-energy density physics experiments. Powerful narrow-bandwidth x rays penetrate through short-lived hot dense states of matter and probe the physical properties with spectrally resolved x-ray scattering. Experiments from isochorically-heated plasmas with electron densities in the range of solid density and above have been demonstrated allowing for the first time exploration of the microscopic properties of dense matter regime close to strongly-coupled and Fermi degenerate conditions. Backscatter measurements have accessed the non-collective Compton scattering regime, which provides accurate diagnostic information on the temperature, density and ionization states. The forward scattering spectrum has been shown to measure the collective plasmon oscillations. Besides extracting the standard plasma parameters, density and temperature, forward scattering yields new observables such as a direct measure of collisions, quantum effects and detailed balance. In this talk, we will discuss new results important for applications of this technique for novel experiments in a wide range of research areas such as inertial confinement fusion, radiation-hydrodynamics, material science, and laboratory astrophysics.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon May 14 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Mon May 14 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}

Conference:
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  • Spectrally resolved Thomson scattering using ultra-fast K-{alpha} x-rays has measured the compression and heating of shocked compressed matter. The evolution and coalescence of two shock waves traveling through a solid density LiH target were characterized by the elastic scattering component. The density and temperature at shock coalescence, 2.2 eV and 1.7 x 10{sup 23}cm{sup -3}, were determined from the plasmon frequency shift and the relative intensity of the elastic and inelastic scattering features in the collective scattering regime. The observation of plasmon scattering at coalescence indicates a transition to the dense metallic state in LiH. The density and temperature regimesmore » accessed in these experiments are relevant for inertial confinement fusion experiments and for the study of planetary formation.« less
  • In this paper the authors demonstrate through calculations and theoretical analysis the first application of a x-ray laser for probing hot, high-density plasmas (n{sub e} {ge} 10{sup 23} cm{sup -3}) using a Ni-like transient collisional excitation x-ray laser as a probe. Theoretical predictions are used to diagnose the electron temperature in short pulse (500 fs) laser produced plasmas. The threshold power of the x-ray probe is estimated by comparing theoretical scattering levels with plasma thermal emission. The necessary spectral resolution of the instrument sufficient for resolving electron temperature is given.
  • X-ray Thomson scattering has been developed for accurate measurements of densities and temperatures in dense plasmas. Experiments with laser-produced x-ray sources have demonstrated Compton scattering and plasmon scattering from isochorically-heated solid-density beryllium plasmas. In these studies, the Ly-alpha or He-alpha radiation from nanosecond laser plasmas has been applied at moderate x-ray energies of E = 3 - 9 keV sufficient to penetrate through the dense plasma and to avoid intense bremsstrahlung radiation at lower energies. In backscattering geometry, the experiments have accessed the non-collective Compton scattering regime where the spectrum reflects the electron velocity distribution of the plasma, thus providingmore » an accurate measurement of the temperature. In addition to the inelastic Compton scattering feature, the spectra also show elastic (Rayleigh) scattering from tightly bound electrons. The intensity ratio of these features yields the ionization state that has been applied to infer the electron density in isochorically-heated matter. Forward scattering in these conditions have observed plasmons that allow direct and accurate measurements of the electron density from the frequency shift of the plasmon peak from the incident probe energy. The back and forward scattering data are in mutual agreement indicating an electron density of ne = 3 x 1023 cm-3, which is also consistent with results from radiation hydrodynamic simulations. These findings indicate that x-ray Thomson scattering provides accurate characterization in the previously unexplored regime of high-energy density matter. Future work will explore applications to measure compressibility, collisions, and electronic properties of dense matter.« less
  • Spectrally resolved Thomson scattering using ultra-fast K-alpha x rays has measured the compression and heating of shocked compressed matter. The evolution and coalescence of two shock waves traveling through a solid density LiH target were characterized by the elastic scattering component. The density and temperature at shock coalescence, 2.2 eV and 1.7x10{sup 23} cm{sup -3}, were determined from the plasmon frequency shift and the relative intensity of the elastic and inelastic scattering features in the collective scattering regime. The observation of plasmon scattering at coalescence indicates a transition to the dense metallic state in LiH. The density and temperature regimesmore » accessed in these experiments are relevant for inertial confinement fusion experiments and for the study of planetary formation.« less