skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Subtask 1.17 - Measurement of Hydrocarbon Evolution from Coal and Petroleum Reservoirs Under Carbon Dioxide Floods

Abstract

The project developed, built, and tested three apparatuses for studying different interactions of carbon dioxide with geologic materials. In Year 1, an online instrument was constructed by coupling a high-pressure carbon dioxide extraction system with a flame ionization detector that can yield a real-time profile and quantitative measurements of hydrocarbons removed from materials such as coal and petroleum reservoir rock. In Years 2 and 3, one instrument was built to measure the excess sorption of carbon dioxide in geologic materials such as coal and showed that measurable uptake of carbon dioxide into the coal matrix is rapid. The final apparatus was built to expose geologic materials to carbon dioxide for long periods of time (weeks to months) under the range of pressures and temperatures relevant to carbon dioxide sequestration. The apparatus allows as many as twenty gram-sized samples of geologic materials to be exposed simultaneously and can also include exposures with geologic brines. The system was used to demonstrate complete conversion of magnesium silicate to magnesium carbonate in less than 4 weeks when exposed to clean water or brine, compared to no measurable conversion of dry magnesium carbonate.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
University Of North Dakota
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
922247
DOE Contract Number:
FC26-98FT40320
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 02 PETROLEUM; BRINES; CARBON DIOXIDE; COAL; FLAMES; FLOODS; HYDROCARBONS; IONIZATION; MAGNESIUM CARBONATES; MAGNESIUM SILICATES; PETROLEUM; RESERVOIR ROCK; SORPTION; WATER

Citation Formats

Steven B. Hawthorne. Subtask 1.17 - Measurement of Hydrocarbon Evolution from Coal and Petroleum Reservoirs Under Carbon Dioxide Floods. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.2172/922247.
Steven B. Hawthorne. Subtask 1.17 - Measurement of Hydrocarbon Evolution from Coal and Petroleum Reservoirs Under Carbon Dioxide Floods. United States. doi:10.2172/922247.
Steven B. Hawthorne. Sun . "Subtask 1.17 - Measurement of Hydrocarbon Evolution from Coal and Petroleum Reservoirs Under Carbon Dioxide Floods". United States. doi:10.2172/922247. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/922247.
@article{osti_922247,
title = {Subtask 1.17 - Measurement of Hydrocarbon Evolution from Coal and Petroleum Reservoirs Under Carbon Dioxide Floods},
author = {Steven B. Hawthorne},
abstractNote = {The project developed, built, and tested three apparatuses for studying different interactions of carbon dioxide with geologic materials. In Year 1, an online instrument was constructed by coupling a high-pressure carbon dioxide extraction system with a flame ionization detector that can yield a real-time profile and quantitative measurements of hydrocarbons removed from materials such as coal and petroleum reservoir rock. In Years 2 and 3, one instrument was built to measure the excess sorption of carbon dioxide in geologic materials such as coal and showed that measurable uptake of carbon dioxide into the coal matrix is rapid. The final apparatus was built to expose geologic materials to carbon dioxide for long periods of time (weeks to months) under the range of pressures and temperatures relevant to carbon dioxide sequestration. The apparatus allows as many as twenty gram-sized samples of geologic materials to be exposed simultaneously and can also include exposures with geologic brines. The system was used to demonstrate complete conversion of magnesium silicate to magnesium carbonate in less than 4 weeks when exposed to clean water or brine, compared to no measurable conversion of dry magnesium carbonate.},
doi = {10.2172/922247},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Dec 31 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Dec 31 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}

Technical Report:

Save / Share:
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) "National Sediment Quality Survey" lists the top pollutants responsible for toxicity in watersheds as 1) PCBS (polychlorinated biphenyls), 2) mercury, and 3) other organics such as PAHs polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and pesticides. In addition, these same pollutants are major contributors to chemical pollution on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other contaminated sites (e.g., industrial sites and harbors). An ideal remediation method would allow cost-effective removal of both organic and mercury contamination using a single process. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has demonstrated that controlling the temperature (and to a lesser extent,more » the pressure) of water can dramatically change its ability to extract organics and inorganic from matrices ranging from soils and sediments to waste sludges and coal. The dielectric constant of water can be changed from ca. 80 (a very polar solvent) to <5 (similar to a nonpolar organic solvent) by controlling the temperature (from ca. ambient to ca. 400oC) and pressure (from ea. 5 to 350 bar). The EERC has shown that hazardous organic pollutants such as pesticides, PAHs, and PCBS can be completely removed from soils, sludges, and sediments at temperatures (250"C) and pressures ( c 50 atrn) that are much milder than typically used for supercritical water processes (temperature > 374oC, pressure >221 atm). In addition, the process has been demonstrated to be particularly effective for samples containing very high levels of contaminants (e.g., parts per thousand). The EERC has also demonstrated that mercury can be extracted using supercritical water at much harsher conditions (400"C, and >300 atm). However, the removal of mercury from contaminated solids at the lower temperature and pressure conditions (e. g., 250"C, 50 atm) has not been investigated. If successful, this project will provide the basis for using hot/liquid water to extract both organic contaminants and mercury from contaminated solids in a single-step process.« less
  • A study was undertaken with the objectives of: preparing an overall assessment of West Virginia reservoirs as candidates for one or more EOR processes; compiling, synthesizing, and analyzing the geologic/engineering data necessary to evaluate the EOR potential of those reservoirs identified as possible EOR candidates; and evaluating and interpreting the results of ongoing and proposed CO/sub 2/ injection field tests in West Virginia. This volume is the final report on the contract study. It presents Gruy Federal's methodology, results, and conclusions organized under the three study objectives listed above.
  • This document comprises two appendices: field data for assessing the potential of the CO/sub 2/ displacement process in West Virginia reservoirs, and oil analyses for 27 West Virginia fields. (DLC)
  • Based on available reservoir information, CO/sub 2/ displacement seems to be the enhanced oil recovery technique most suitable for most West Virginia oil reservoirs. Seventeen reservoirs have been identified as potential candidates for the CO/sub 2/ displacement process: three Berea, six Big Injun, five Gordon, one Gordon Stray, one Fifth, and one Squaw--Weir sand reservoir. The total volume of oil remaining in these 17 reservoirs is estimated to be more than one billion barrels. The fields are all within a relatively small geographic area and constitute a significant target for enhanced oil recovery technology. There are, however, many difficulties inmore » working with expensive fluids in old fields containing many abandoned wells. Injectivity of liquid CO/sub 2/ in West Virginia oil reservoirs has been demonstrated to be higher than that for water or natural gas. In connection with raising pressures prior to CO/sub 2/ injection, waterflooding has been shown to be effective in two reservoirs previously considered impossible to flood. In the single CO/sub 2/ displacement process completed in West Virginia, the Granny's Creek project, efficiency of recovery was not high: less than one barrel of additional oil per 20 MSCF of CO/sub 2/ injected. The injected liquid was found far outside the project area, however, indicating a need for effective confinement. The CO/sub 2/ process has been demonstrated as effective in displacing oil from a previously waterflooded portion of the reservoir. The three ongoing or projected CO/sub 2/ projects in the state have many common features, which should simplify the complete analysis when they are completed.« less