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Title: 16,000-rpm Interior Permanent Magnet Reluctance Machine with Brushless Field Excitation

Abstract

The reluctance interior permanent magnet (RIPM) motor is currently used by many leading auto manufacturers for hybrid vehicles. The power density for this type of motor is high compared with that of induction motors and switched reluctance motors. The primary drawback of the RIPM motor is the permanent magnet (PM) because during high-speed operation, the fixed PM produces a huge back electromotive force (emf) that must be reduced before the current will pass through the stator windings. This reduction in back-emf is accomplished with a significant direct-axis (d-axis) demagnetization current, which opposes the PM's flux to reduce the flux seen by the stator wires. This may lower the power factor and efficiency of the motor and raise the requirement on the alternate current (ac) power supply; consequently, bigger inverter switching components, thicker motor winding conductors, and heavier cables are required. The direct current (dc) link capacitor is also affected when it must accommodate heavier harmonic currents. It is commonly agreed that, for synchronous machines, the power factor can be optimized by varying the field excitation to minimize the current. The field produced by the PM is fixed and cannot be adjusted. What can be adjusted is reactive current to themore » d-axis of the stator winding, which consumes reactive power but does not always help to improve the power factor. The objective of this project is to avoid the primary drawbacks of the RIPM motor by introducing brushless field excitation (BFE). This offers both high torque per ampere (A) per core length at low speed by using flux, which is enhanced by increasing current to a fixed excitation coil, and flux, which is weakened at high speed by reducing current to the excitation coil. If field weakening is used, the dc/dc boost converter used in a conventional RIPM motor may be eliminated to reduce system costs. However, BFE supports a drive system with a dc/dc boost converter, because it can further extend the constant power speed range of the drive system and adjust the field for power factor and efficiency gains. Lower core losses at low torque regions, especially at high speeds, are attained by reducing the field excitation. Safety and reliability are increased by weakening the field when a winding short-circuit fault occurs, preventing damage to the motor. For a high-speed motor operating at 16,000-revolutions per minute (rpm), mechanical stress is a challenge. Bridges that link the rotor punching segments together must be thickened for mechanical integrity; consequently, increased rotor flux leakage significantly lowers motor performance. This barrier can be overcome by BFE to ensure sufficient rotor flux when needed.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
921780
Report Number(s):
ORNL/TM-2007/167
TRN: US200806%%160
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; CAPACITORS; DEMAGNETIZATION; DIRECT CURRENT; EFFICIENCY; ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE; EXCITATION; HARMONICS; INDUCTION; INVERTERS; MOTORS; PERMANENT MAGNETS; POWER DENSITY; POWER FACTOR; RELIABILITY; ROTORS; SAFETY; STATORS; TORQUE; VELOCITY

Citation Formats

Hsu, J S, Burress, T A, Lee, S T, Wiles, R H, Coomer, C L, McKeever, J W, and Adams, D J. 16,000-rpm Interior Permanent Magnet Reluctance Machine with Brushless Field Excitation. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.2172/921780.
Hsu, J S, Burress, T A, Lee, S T, Wiles, R H, Coomer, C L, McKeever, J W, & Adams, D J. 16,000-rpm Interior Permanent Magnet Reluctance Machine with Brushless Field Excitation. United States. doi:10.2172/921780.
Hsu, J S, Burress, T A, Lee, S T, Wiles, R H, Coomer, C L, McKeever, J W, and Adams, D J. Wed . "16,000-rpm Interior Permanent Magnet Reluctance Machine with Brushless Field Excitation". United States. doi:10.2172/921780. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/921780.
@article{osti_921780,
title = {16,000-rpm Interior Permanent Magnet Reluctance Machine with Brushless Field Excitation},
author = {Hsu, J S and Burress, T A and Lee, S T and Wiles, R H and Coomer, C L and McKeever, J W and Adams, D J},
abstractNote = {The reluctance interior permanent magnet (RIPM) motor is currently used by many leading auto manufacturers for hybrid vehicles. The power density for this type of motor is high compared with that of induction motors and switched reluctance motors. The primary drawback of the RIPM motor is the permanent magnet (PM) because during high-speed operation, the fixed PM produces a huge back electromotive force (emf) that must be reduced before the current will pass through the stator windings. This reduction in back-emf is accomplished with a significant direct-axis (d-axis) demagnetization current, which opposes the PM's flux to reduce the flux seen by the stator wires. This may lower the power factor and efficiency of the motor and raise the requirement on the alternate current (ac) power supply; consequently, bigger inverter switching components, thicker motor winding conductors, and heavier cables are required. The direct current (dc) link capacitor is also affected when it must accommodate heavier harmonic currents. It is commonly agreed that, for synchronous machines, the power factor can be optimized by varying the field excitation to minimize the current. The field produced by the PM is fixed and cannot be adjusted. What can be adjusted is reactive current to the d-axis of the stator winding, which consumes reactive power but does not always help to improve the power factor. The objective of this project is to avoid the primary drawbacks of the RIPM motor by introducing brushless field excitation (BFE). This offers both high torque per ampere (A) per core length at low speed by using flux, which is enhanced by increasing current to a fixed excitation coil, and flux, which is weakened at high speed by reducing current to the excitation coil. If field weakening is used, the dc/dc boost converter used in a conventional RIPM motor may be eliminated to reduce system costs. However, BFE supports a drive system with a dc/dc boost converter, because it can further extend the constant power speed range of the drive system and adjust the field for power factor and efficiency gains. Lower core losses at low torque regions, especially at high speeds, are attained by reducing the field excitation. Safety and reliability are increased by weakening the field when a winding short-circuit fault occurs, preventing damage to the motor. For a high-speed motor operating at 16,000-revolutions per minute (rpm), mechanical stress is a challenge. Bridges that link the rotor punching segments together must be thickened for mechanical integrity; consequently, increased rotor flux leakage significantly lowers motor performance. This barrier can be overcome by BFE to ensure sufficient rotor flux when needed.},
doi = {10.2172/921780},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2007},
month = {10}
}