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Title: Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20)

Abstract

Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane, (C6H6N12O12, MW 438) {CL-20}, is a high-energy propellent that has been recently developed and successfully tested (Nielsen et al. 1998). CL-20 releases more energy on ignition and is more stable to accidental detonation than currently used energetic materials. It is expected to replace many of the energetic materials currently being used by the Department of Defense (DoD). The EPA method 8330 (EPA 1997) for the analysis of explosives and metabolites in soils calls for the use of UV/Vis detection. High performance liquid chromatography has been used to quantify CL-20 and precursor concentration (Bazaki et al. 1998`) at relatively high concentrations. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used to identify different crystal forms of CL-20 (4 isomers; Kim et al. 1998). Campbell et al. (1997) utilized particle beam mass spectrometry for the analysis of enzymatic degradation of explosives. Introduction and recent improvements of ionization techniques such as electrospray (ES) have allowed the mass spectrometer to become more widely used in liquid chromatography. Schilling(1996) also examined explosive components and metabolites using electrospray (ES) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Schilling’s results showed that compared to thermospray LC/MS, APCI and ES were more sensitive than thermospray bymore » at least an order of magnitude. 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX), 10 nitroso-RDX metabolites, and other munitions in ground water have been analyzed using solid phase extraction and isotope dilution liquid chromatography-APCI mass spectrometry (Cassada et al. 1999). The method detection limits indicate that nitramine and nitroaromatic compounds can be routinely determined in ground water samples using electrospray LC/MS with concentration techniques utilizing solid-phase extraction. Miller et al. (1996) studied nitrated explosives with mobile phase additives to enhance the ESI intensities and spectral consistencies. Several of the explosives gave nitrate adduct ions in the negative mode with ammonium nitrate as the mobile phase. The nitramines RDX and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7 tetraazacyclooctane (HMX) showed the greatest enhancement in response of the explosives. Ammonium nitrate was used as the mobile phase and made it possible to obtain consistent and interpretable LC/MS spectra at the nanogram level. Campbell et al. (1999), Shi et al. (2000), and Goheen et al. (1999) utilized electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the identification of degradation products of explosives. Yinon et al. (1997) used ESI and tandem mass spectrometry collision-induced dissociation to examine several nitramine compounds including trinitrotolutene (TNT), RDX, and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). The results indicate that explosives can be detected in the negative ion mode and characterized by various adduct ions. As an example, for nitroglycerin, the major adduct ion observed was (M+ONO2)-. In addition, Harvey et al. (1992) have used direct probe mass spectrometry for the analysis of degradation products of tetryl and its transformation products in soil. The negative ion electrospray mass spectrum of CL-20 is reported here. The major adduct ions observed under negative ion conditions were (M+Cl)- at m/z 473 and (M+ONO2) – at m/z 500. In addition, the results of mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry studies are also discussed.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
921369
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-54498
Journal ID: ISSN 0003-2719; ANALBP; TRN: US200804%%718
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Analytical Letters, 40(10):1972-1978
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 40; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-2719
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE; EXPLOSIVES; NITRO COMPOUNDS; MASS SPECTROSCOPY; ADDUCTS; IONS; SOILS

Citation Formats

Campbell, James A, Szecsody, Jim E, Devary, Brooks J, and Valenzuela, Blandina R. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20). United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1080/00032710701484459.
Campbell, James A, Szecsody, Jim E, Devary, Brooks J, & Valenzuela, Blandina R. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20). United States. https://doi.org/10.1080/00032710701484459
Campbell, James A, Szecsody, Jim E, Devary, Brooks J, and Valenzuela, Blandina R. Mon . "Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20)". United States. https://doi.org/10.1080/00032710701484459.
@article{osti_921369,
title = {Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20)},
author = {Campbell, James A and Szecsody, Jim E and Devary, Brooks J and Valenzuela, Blandina R},
abstractNote = {Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane, (C6H6N12O12, MW 438) {CL-20}, is a high-energy propellent that has been recently developed and successfully tested (Nielsen et al. 1998). CL-20 releases more energy on ignition and is more stable to accidental detonation than currently used energetic materials. It is expected to replace many of the energetic materials currently being used by the Department of Defense (DoD). The EPA method 8330 (EPA 1997) for the analysis of explosives and metabolites in soils calls for the use of UV/Vis detection. High performance liquid chromatography has been used to quantify CL-20 and precursor concentration (Bazaki et al. 1998`) at relatively high concentrations. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used to identify different crystal forms of CL-20 (4 isomers; Kim et al. 1998). Campbell et al. (1997) utilized particle beam mass spectrometry for the analysis of enzymatic degradation of explosives. Introduction and recent improvements of ionization techniques such as electrospray (ES) have allowed the mass spectrometer to become more widely used in liquid chromatography. Schilling(1996) also examined explosive components and metabolites using electrospray (ES) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Schilling’s results showed that compared to thermospray LC/MS, APCI and ES were more sensitive than thermospray by at least an order of magnitude. 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX), 10 nitroso-RDX metabolites, and other munitions in ground water have been analyzed using solid phase extraction and isotope dilution liquid chromatography-APCI mass spectrometry (Cassada et al. 1999). The method detection limits indicate that nitramine and nitroaromatic compounds can be routinely determined in ground water samples using electrospray LC/MS with concentration techniques utilizing solid-phase extraction. Miller et al. (1996) studied nitrated explosives with mobile phase additives to enhance the ESI intensities and spectral consistencies. Several of the explosives gave nitrate adduct ions in the negative mode with ammonium nitrate as the mobile phase. The nitramines RDX and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7 tetraazacyclooctane (HMX) showed the greatest enhancement in response of the explosives. Ammonium nitrate was used as the mobile phase and made it possible to obtain consistent and interpretable LC/MS spectra at the nanogram level. Campbell et al. (1999), Shi et al. (2000), and Goheen et al. (1999) utilized electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the identification of degradation products of explosives. Yinon et al. (1997) used ESI and tandem mass spectrometry collision-induced dissociation to examine several nitramine compounds including trinitrotolutene (TNT), RDX, and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). The results indicate that explosives can be detected in the negative ion mode and characterized by various adduct ions. As an example, for nitroglycerin, the major adduct ion observed was (M+ONO2)-. In addition, Harvey et al. (1992) have used direct probe mass spectrometry for the analysis of degradation products of tetryl and its transformation products in soil. The negative ion electrospray mass spectrum of CL-20 is reported here. The major adduct ions observed under negative ion conditions were (M+Cl)- at m/z 473 and (M+ONO2) – at m/z 500. In addition, the results of mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry studies are also discussed.},
doi = {10.1080/00032710701484459},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/921369}, journal = {Analytical Letters, 40(10):1972-1978},
issn = {0003-2719},
number = 10,
volume = 40,
place = {United States},
year = {2007},
month = {9}
}