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Title: Macro-meso-microsystems integration in LTCC : LDRD report.

Abstract

Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC) has proven to be an enabling medium for microsystem technologies, because of its desirable electrical, physical, and chemical properties coupled with its capability for rapid prototyping and scalable manufacturing of components. LTCC is viewed as an extension of hybrid microcircuits, and in that function it enables development, testing, and deployment of silicon microsystems. However, its versatility has allowed it to succeed as a microsystem medium in its own right, with applications in non-microelectronic meso-scale devices and in a range of sensor devices. Applications include silicon microfluidic ''chip-and-wire'' systems and fluid grid array (FGA)/microfluidic multichip modules using embedded channels in LTCC, and cofired electro-mechanical systems with moving parts. Both the microfluidic and mechanical system applications are enabled by sacrificial volume materials (SVM), which serve to create and maintain cavities and separation gaps during the lamination and cofiring process. SVMs consisting of thermally fugitive or partially inert materials are easily incorporated. Recognizing the premium on devices that are cofired rather than assembled, we report on functional-as-released and functional-as-fired moving parts. Additional applications for cofired transparent windows, some as small as an optical fiber, are also described. The applications described help pave the way for widespread application ofmore » LTCC to biomedical, control, analysis, characterization, and radio frequency (RF) functions for macro-meso-microsystems.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Laboratories
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
920804
Report Number(s):
SAND2007-1871
TRN: US200803%%30
DOE Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; CERAMICS; MANUFACTURING; SILICON; WINDOWS; MINIATURIZATION; USES; Molecular integrated microsystems.; Ceramic materials.; Ceramic engineering.; Low temperature research.; LOW TEMPERATURE; Ceramics.

Citation Formats

De Smet, Dennis J., Nordquist, Christopher Daniel, Turner, Timothy Shawn, Rohrer, Brandon Robinson, Walker, Charles A., Ho, Clifford K.., Patel, Kamlesh D., Okandan, Murat, Rohde, Steven Barney, Wroblewski, Brian D., Pfeifer, Kent Bryant, Peterson, Kenneth Allen, and Buerger, Stephen P. Macro-meso-microsystems integration in LTCC : LDRD report.. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.2172/920804.
De Smet, Dennis J., Nordquist, Christopher Daniel, Turner, Timothy Shawn, Rohrer, Brandon Robinson, Walker, Charles A., Ho, Clifford K.., Patel, Kamlesh D., Okandan, Murat, Rohde, Steven Barney, Wroblewski, Brian D., Pfeifer, Kent Bryant, Peterson, Kenneth Allen, & Buerger, Stephen P. Macro-meso-microsystems integration in LTCC : LDRD report.. United States. doi:10.2172/920804.
De Smet, Dennis J., Nordquist, Christopher Daniel, Turner, Timothy Shawn, Rohrer, Brandon Robinson, Walker, Charles A., Ho, Clifford K.., Patel, Kamlesh D., Okandan, Murat, Rohde, Steven Barney, Wroblewski, Brian D., Pfeifer, Kent Bryant, Peterson, Kenneth Allen, and Buerger, Stephen P. Thu . "Macro-meso-microsystems integration in LTCC : LDRD report.". United States. doi:10.2172/920804. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/920804.
@article{osti_920804,
title = {Macro-meso-microsystems integration in LTCC : LDRD report.},
author = {De Smet, Dennis J. and Nordquist, Christopher Daniel and Turner, Timothy Shawn and Rohrer, Brandon Robinson and Walker, Charles A. and Ho, Clifford K.. and Patel, Kamlesh D. and Okandan, Murat and Rohde, Steven Barney and Wroblewski, Brian D. and Pfeifer, Kent Bryant and Peterson, Kenneth Allen and Buerger, Stephen P.},
abstractNote = {Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC) has proven to be an enabling medium for microsystem technologies, because of its desirable electrical, physical, and chemical properties coupled with its capability for rapid prototyping and scalable manufacturing of components. LTCC is viewed as an extension of hybrid microcircuits, and in that function it enables development, testing, and deployment of silicon microsystems. However, its versatility has allowed it to succeed as a microsystem medium in its own right, with applications in non-microelectronic meso-scale devices and in a range of sensor devices. Applications include silicon microfluidic ''chip-and-wire'' systems and fluid grid array (FGA)/microfluidic multichip modules using embedded channels in LTCC, and cofired electro-mechanical systems with moving parts. Both the microfluidic and mechanical system applications are enabled by sacrificial volume materials (SVM), which serve to create and maintain cavities and separation gaps during the lamination and cofiring process. SVMs consisting of thermally fugitive or partially inert materials are easily incorporated. Recognizing the premium on devices that are cofired rather than assembled, we report on functional-as-released and functional-as-fired moving parts. Additional applications for cofired transparent windows, some as small as an optical fiber, are also described. The applications described help pave the way for widespread application of LTCC to biomedical, control, analysis, characterization, and radio frequency (RF) functions for macro-meso-microsystems.},
doi = {10.2172/920804},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Thu Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}

Technical Report:

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  • We describe a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort to develop and apply laser-based thermometry diagnostics for obtaining spatially resolved temperature maps on working microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The goal of the effort was to cultivate diagnostic approaches that could adequately resolve the extremely fine MEMS device features, required no modifications to MEMS device design, and which did not perturb the delicate operation of these extremely small devices. Two optical diagnostics were used in this study: microscale Raman spectroscopy and microscale thermoreflectance. Both methods use a low-energy, nonperturbing probe laser beam, whose arbitrary wavelength can be selected for a diffraction-limitedmore » focus that meets the need for micron-scale spatial resolution. Raman is exploited most frequently, as this technique provides a simple and unambiguous measure of the absolute device temperature for most any MEMS semiconductor or insulator material under steady state operation. Temperatures are obtained from the spectral position and width of readily isolated peaks in the measured Raman spectra with a maximum uncertainty near {+-}10 K and a spatial resolution of about 1 micron. Application of the Raman technique is demonstrated for V-shaped and flexure-style polycrystalline silicon electrothermal actuators, and for a GaN high-electron-mobility transistor. The potential of the Raman technique for simultaneous measurement of temperature and in-plane stress in silicon MEMS is also demonstrated and future Raman-variant diagnostics for ultra spatio-temporal resolution probing are discussed. Microscale thermoreflectance has been developed as a complement for the primary Raman diagnostic. Thermoreflectance exploits the small-but-measurable temperature dependence of surface optical reflectivity for diagnostic purposes. The temperature-dependent reflectance behavior of bulk silicon, SUMMiT-V polycrystalline silicon films and metal surfaces is presented. The results for bulk silicon are applied to silicon-on-insulator (SOI) fabricated actuators, where measured temperatures with a maximum uncertainty near {+-}9 K, and 0.75-micron inplane spatial resolution, are achieved for the reflectance-based measurements. Reflectance-based temperatures are found to be in good agreement with Raman-measured temperatures from the same device.« less
  • This LDRD Final report describes work that Stephen W. Thomas performed in 2006. The initial problem was to develop a modeling, simulation, and optimization strategy for the design of a high speed microsystem switch. The challenge was to model the right phenomena at the right level of fidelity, and capture the right design parameters. This effort focused on the design context, in contrast to other Sandia efforts focus on high-fidelity assessment. This report contains the initial proposal and the annual progress report. This report also describes exploratory work on micromaching using femtosecond lasers. Steve's time developing a proposal and collaborationmore » on this topic was partly funded by this LDRD.« less
  • Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are well suited for emerging photonic microsystems due to their low power consumption, ease of integration with other optical components, and single frequency operation. However, the typical VCSEL linewidth of 100 MHz is approximately ten times wider than the natural linewidth of atoms used in atomic beam clocks and trapped atom research, which degrades or completely destroys performance in those systems. This report documents our efforts to reduce VCSEL linewidths below 10 MHz to meet the needs of advanced sub-Doppler atomic microsystems, such as cold-atom traps. We have investigated two complementary approaches to reduce VCSEL linewidth:more » (A) increasing the laser-cavity quality factor, and (B) decreasing the linewidth enhancement factor (alpha) of the optical gain medium. We have developed two new VCSEL devices that achieved increased cavity quality factors: (1) all-semiconductor extended-cavity VCSELs, and (2) micro-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (MECSELs). These new VCSEL devices have demonstrated linewidths below 10 MHz, and linewidths below 1 MHz seem feasible with further optimization.« less
  • This project represented a coordinated LLNL-SNL collaboration to investigate the feasibility of developing radiation-hardened magnetic non-volatile memories using giant magnetoresistance (GMR) materials. The intent of this limited-duration study was to investigate whether giant magnetoresistance (GMR) materials similar to those used for magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) were process compatible with functioning CMOS circuits. Sandia's work on this project demonstrated that deposition of GMR materials did not affect the operation nor the radiation hardness of Sandia's rad-hard CMOS technology, nor did the integration of GMR materials and exposure to ionizing radiation affect the magnetic properties of the GMR films. Thus, following depositionmore » of GMR films on rad-hard integrated circuits, both the circuits and the films survived ionizing radiation levels consistent with DOE mission requirements. Furthermore, Sandia developed techniques to pattern deposited GMR films without degrading the completed integrated circuits upon which they were deposited. The present feasibility study demonstrated all the necessary processing elements to allow fabrication of the non-volatile memory elements onto an existing CMOS chip, and even allow the use of embedded (on-chip) non-volatile memories for system-on-a-chip applications, even in demanding radiation environments. However, funding agencies DTRA, AIM, and DARPA did not have any funds available to support the required follow-on technology development projects that would have been required to develop functioning prototype circuits, nor were such funds available from LDRD nor from other DOE program funds.« less
  • Capabilities are developed, verified and validated to generate constitutive responses using material and geometric measurements with representative volume elements (RVE). The geometrically accurate RVEs are used for determining elastic properties and damage initiation and propagation analysis. Finite element modeling of the meso-structure over the distribution of characterizing measurements is automated and various boundary conditions are applied. Plain and harness weave composites are investigated. Continuum yarn damage, softening behavior and an elastic-plastic matrix are combined with known materials and geometries in order to estimate the macroscopic response as characterized by a set of orthotropic material parameters. Damage mechanics and coupling effectsmore » are investigated and macroscopic material models are demonstrated and discussed. Prediction of the elastic, damage, and failure behavior of woven composites will aid in macroscopic constitutive characterization for modeling and optimizing advanced composite systems.« less