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Title: Reliable, Economic, Efficient CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater for North America

Abstract

Adoption of heat pump water heating technology for commercial hot water could save up to 0.4 quads of energy and 5 million metric tons of CO2 production annually in North America, but industry perception is that this technology does not offer adequate performance or reliability and comes at too high of a cost. Development and demonstration of a CO2 heat pump water heater is proposed to reduce these barriers to adoption. Three major themes are addressed: market analysis to understand barriers to adoption, use of advanced reliability models to design optimum qualification test plans, and field testing of two phases of water heater prototypes. Market experts claim that beyond good performance, market adoption requires 'drop and forget' system reliability and a six month payback of first costs. Performance, reliability and cost targets are determined and reliability models are developed to evaluate the minimum testing required to meet reliability targets. Three phase 1 prototypes are designed and installed in the field. Based on results from these trials a product specification is developed and a second phase of five field trial units are built and installed. These eight units accumulate 11 unit-years of service including 15,650 hours and 25,242 cycles of compressormore » operation. Performance targets can be met. An availability of 60% is achieved and the capability to achieve >90% is demonstrated, but overall reliability is below target, with an average of 3.6 failures/unit-year on the phase 2 demonstration. Most reliability issues are shown to be common to new HVAC products, giving high confidence in mature product reliability, but the need for further work to minimize leaks and ensure reliability of the electronic expansion valve is clear. First cost is projected to be above target, leading to an expectation of 8-24 month payback when substituted for an electric water heater. Despite not meeting all targets, arguments are made that an industry leader could sufficiently develop this technology to impact the water heater market in the near term.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
United Technologies Corporation
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
920190
DOE Contract Number:
FC26-03NT41953
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; HEAT PUMPS; HOT WATER; MARKET; NORTH AMERICA; PERFORMANCE; RELIABILITY; TARGETS; WATER HEATERS; WATER HEATING; CARBON DIOXIDE

Citation Formats

Radcliff, Thomas D, Sienel, Tobias, Huff, Hans-Joachim, Thompson, Adrian, Sadegh, Payman, Olsommer, Benoit, and Park, Young. Reliable, Economic, Efficient CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater for North America. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.2172/920190.
Radcliff, Thomas D, Sienel, Tobias, Huff, Hans-Joachim, Thompson, Adrian, Sadegh, Payman, Olsommer, Benoit, & Park, Young. Reliable, Economic, Efficient CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater for North America. United States. doi:10.2172/920190.
Radcliff, Thomas D, Sienel, Tobias, Huff, Hans-Joachim, Thompson, Adrian, Sadegh, Payman, Olsommer, Benoit, and Park, Young. Sun . "Reliable, Economic, Efficient CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater for North America". United States. doi:10.2172/920190. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/920190.
@article{osti_920190,
title = {Reliable, Economic, Efficient CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater for North America},
author = {Radcliff, Thomas D and Sienel, Tobias and Huff, Hans-Joachim and Thompson, Adrian and Sadegh, Payman and Olsommer, Benoit and Park, Young},
abstractNote = {Adoption of heat pump water heating technology for commercial hot water could save up to 0.4 quads of energy and 5 million metric tons of CO2 production annually in North America, but industry perception is that this technology does not offer adequate performance or reliability and comes at too high of a cost. Development and demonstration of a CO2 heat pump water heater is proposed to reduce these barriers to adoption. Three major themes are addressed: market analysis to understand barriers to adoption, use of advanced reliability models to design optimum qualification test plans, and field testing of two phases of water heater prototypes. Market experts claim that beyond good performance, market adoption requires 'drop and forget' system reliability and a six month payback of first costs. Performance, reliability and cost targets are determined and reliability models are developed to evaluate the minimum testing required to meet reliability targets. Three phase 1 prototypes are designed and installed in the field. Based on results from these trials a product specification is developed and a second phase of five field trial units are built and installed. These eight units accumulate 11 unit-years of service including 15,650 hours and 25,242 cycles of compressor operation. Performance targets can be met. An availability of 60% is achieved and the capability to achieve >90% is demonstrated, but overall reliability is below target, with an average of 3.6 failures/unit-year on the phase 2 demonstration. Most reliability issues are shown to be common to new HVAC products, giving high confidence in mature product reliability, but the need for further work to minimize leaks and ensure reliability of the electronic expansion valve is clear. First cost is projected to be above target, leading to an expectation of 8-24 month payback when substituted for an electric water heater. Despite not meeting all targets, arguments are made that an industry leader could sufficiently develop this technology to impact the water heater market in the near term.},
doi = {10.2172/920190},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Dec 31 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Dec 31 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}

Technical Report:

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