skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Electrochemical sensors based on nanomaterials for environmental monitoring

Abstract

This article review work relevant to the two fastest growing nanomaterials in electrochemical sensing of metal ions: organically modified ordered mesoporous silicas (OMSs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Nanostructured self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous silicas (SAMMS) materials are highly effective as electrode modifiers; they can be either mixed with conductive materials or spin-cast as a thin-film on electrode surface. The interfacial chemistry of SAMMS can be fine-tuned to selectively preconcentrate the specific metal ions of interest. The functional groups on SAMMS materials enable the preconcentration to be done without mercury, supporting electrolytes, applied potential, and solution degassing, all of which are often required in conventional adsorptive stripping voltammetric sensors. Since it was first introduced in 1991, CNTs have been widely investigated for electrochemical sensors of many important biomolecules because of their electrocatalytic and antifouling properties, biocompatibility, high surface, and mechanical strength. For trace metal analysis, CNT thin-film created by drop-coating of CNT-solvent suspensions on electrode surfaces has been explored in order to develop mercury-free sensors by exploiting the bulk properties of the CNTs. Array of low-site-density aligned carbon nanotubes has been grown on metal substrates by a non-lithographic method. Each CNT serves as a nanoelectrode which normally has greater mass transfer ratemore » and higher mass sensitivity than conventional macroelectrodes. The array of millions of CNT nanoelectrodes provides magnified voltammetric signals for trace metal ions without the need for a signal amplifier.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US), Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
918843
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-52933
11098a; 6899; 9305; 17505; 3281a; KP1302000; TRN: US200820%%21
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Book
Resource Relation:
Related Information: Environmental Applications of Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Sorbents And Sensors, 401-438
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; NANOSTRUCTURES; SENSORS; MONITORING; ENVIRONMENT; ELECTROCHEMISTRY; METALS; SILICA; CARBON; TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT; Electrochemical Sensors, carbon nanotube, SAMMS, mesoporous silica; Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory

Citation Formats

Yantasee, Wassana, Lin, Yuehe, and Fryxell, Glen E. Electrochemical sensors based on nanomaterials for environmental monitoring. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Yantasee, Wassana, Lin, Yuehe, & Fryxell, Glen E. Electrochemical sensors based on nanomaterials for environmental monitoring. United States.
Yantasee, Wassana, Lin, Yuehe, and Fryxell, Glen E. Tue . "Electrochemical sensors based on nanomaterials for environmental monitoring". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_918843,
title = {Electrochemical sensors based on nanomaterials for environmental monitoring},
author = {Yantasee, Wassana and Lin, Yuehe and Fryxell, Glen E.},
abstractNote = {This article review work relevant to the two fastest growing nanomaterials in electrochemical sensing of metal ions: organically modified ordered mesoporous silicas (OMSs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Nanostructured self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous silicas (SAMMS) materials are highly effective as electrode modifiers; they can be either mixed with conductive materials or spin-cast as a thin-film on electrode surface. The interfacial chemistry of SAMMS can be fine-tuned to selectively preconcentrate the specific metal ions of interest. The functional groups on SAMMS materials enable the preconcentration to be done without mercury, supporting electrolytes, applied potential, and solution degassing, all of which are often required in conventional adsorptive stripping voltammetric sensors. Since it was first introduced in 1991, CNTs have been widely investigated for electrochemical sensors of many important biomolecules because of their electrocatalytic and antifouling properties, biocompatibility, high surface, and mechanical strength. For trace metal analysis, CNT thin-film created by drop-coating of CNT-solvent suspensions on electrode surfaces has been explored in order to develop mercury-free sensors by exploiting the bulk properties of the CNTs. Array of low-site-density aligned carbon nanotubes has been grown on metal substrates by a non-lithographic method. Each CNT serves as a nanoelectrode which normally has greater mass transfer rate and higher mass sensitivity than conventional macroelectrodes. The array of millions of CNT nanoelectrodes provides magnified voltammetric signals for trace metal ions without the need for a signal amplifier.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Tue May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}

Book:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that hold this book.

Save / Share:
  • This article review work relevant to the two fastest growing nanomaterials in electrochemical sensing of metal ions: organically modified ordered mesoporous silicas (OMSs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Nanostructured self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous silicas (SAMMS) materials are highly effective as electrode modifiers; they can be either mixed with conductive materials or spin-cast as a thin-film on electrode surface. The interfacial chemistry of SAMMS can be fine-tuned to selectively preconcentrate the specific metal ions of interest. The functional groups on SAMMS materials enable the preconcentration to be done without mercury, supporting electrolytes, applied potential, and solution degassing, all of which are oftenmore » required in conventional adsorptive stripping voltammetric sensors. Since it was first introduced in 1991, CNTs have been widely investigated for electrochemical sensors of many important biomolecules because of their electrocatalytic and antifouling properties, biocompatibility, high surface, and mechanical strength. For trace metal analysis, CNT thin-film created by drop-coating of CNT-solvent suspensions on electrode surfaces has been explored in order to develop mercury-free sensors by exploiting the bulk properties of the CNTs. Array of low-site-density aligned carbon nanotubes has been grown on metal substrates by a non-lithographic method. Each CNT serves as a nanoelectrode which normally has greater mass transfer rate and higher mass sensitivity than conventional macroelectrodes. The array of millions of CNT nanoelectrodes provides magnified voltammetric signals for trace metal ions without the need for a signal amplifier.« less
  • Nanostructured materials enable the development of miniature sensing devices that are compact, low-cost, low-energy-consumption, and easily integrated into field-deployable units. Recently we have successfully developed electrochemical sensors based on functionalized nanostructured materials for the characterization of metal ions. Specifically, glycinyl-urea self-assembled monolayer on nanoporous silica (Gly-UR SAMMS) has been incorporated in carbon paste electrodes for the detection of toxic metals such as lead, copper, and mercury based on adsorptive stripping voltammetry, while acetamide phosphonic acid self-assembled monolayer on nanoporous silica (Ac-Phos SAMMS) has been used for the detection of uranium. Both electrochemical sensors yield reproducible measurements with excellent detection limitsmore » (at ppb level), are selective for target species, does not require the use of mercury film and chelating agents, and require little or no regeneration of electrode materials. The rigid, open, paralleled pore structure combined with suitable interfacial chemistry of SAMMS also results in fast responses of the electrochemical sensors.« less
  • A fractal analysis is presented for the binding of pyrene in solution to {beta}-cyclodextrin attached to a fiber-optic chemical sensor. The specific (k{sub 1}) and the non-specific binding rate (k{sub ns}) coefficients and the fractal dimension, D{sub f} (specific binding case only) both tend to increase as the pyrene concentration in solution increases for 12.4 to 124 ng/mL. Predictive relations for the binding rate coefficient (specific as well as non-specific binding) and for D{sub f} (specific binding case only) a function of pyrene concentration are provided. These relations fit the calculated k{sub 1} and D{sub f} values in the physicalmore » insights into the reactions occurring on the fiber-optic chemical surface and should assist in the design of fiber-optic chemical sensors.« less
  • A corrosion monitoring system using electrochemical noise measurements and their numerical analysis is described. Electrochemical noise was measured in a freely corroding system containing three identical metal electrodes. A voltage signal generated by the first pair of electrodes and a current signal generated by the second pair were measured and the data fed into a computer. A mathematical model including signal processing and pattern recognition was developed and implemented in computer software. Analysis of the electrochemical noise enabled determination of the corrosion rate and the corrosion type. The reliability of the corrosion monitoring system was tested with various reference methodsmore » (visual inspection, SEM analysis, I vs E curves, electrical resistance). Tests were performed on steel and aluminium in aqueous solutions of various pH and conductivity values.« less
  • The rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology provides new opportunities for the sustainable progress of nanoscale catalysts (i.e., nanocatalysts). The introduction of nanocatalysts into electronic devices implants their novel functions into electronic sensing systems, resulting in the testing of many advanced electrochemical sensors and the fabrication of some highly sensitive, selective, and stable sensing platforms. In this Review, we will summarize recent significant progress on exploring advanced carbon nanomaterials (such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, highly ordered mesoporous carbons, and electron cyclotron resonance sputtered nanocarbon film) as nanoscale electrocatalysts (i.e., nanoelectrocatalysts) for constructing the catalytic nanointerfaces of electronic devices to achievemore » high-sensitivity and high-selectivity electrochemical sensors. Furthermore, different mechanisms for the extraordinary and unique electrocatalytic activities of these carbon nanomaterials will be also highlighted, compared and discussed. An outlook on the future trends and developments in this area will be provided at the end. Notably, to elaborate the nature of carbon nanomaterial, we will mainly focus on the electrocatalysis of single kind of carbon materials rather than their hybrid composite materials. As a result, we expect that advanced carbon nanomaterials with unique electrocatalytic activities will continue to attract increasing research interest and lead to new opportunities in various fields of research.« less