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Title: Drug Retention Times

Abstract

The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE - Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH)
OSTI Identifier:
917182
Report Number(s):
ORISE 07-NSEM-0544
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-06OR23100
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
98 NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT, SAFEGUARDS, AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION; drug retention times

Citation Formats

Center for Human Reliability Studies. Drug Retention Times. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.2172/917182.
Center for Human Reliability Studies. Drug Retention Times. United States. doi:10.2172/917182.
Center for Human Reliability Studies. Tue . "Drug Retention Times". United States. doi:10.2172/917182. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/917182.
@article{osti_917182,
title = {Drug Retention Times},
author = {Center for Human Reliability Studies},
abstractNote = {The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.},
doi = {10.2172/917182},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Tue May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}

Technical Report:

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  • The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user. Based on anecdotal evidence, most people “party” during extended time away from the work environment. Therefore, the following scenarios were envisioned: (1) a person uses an illicit drug at a party on Saturday night (infrequent user); (2) a person uses a drug one time on Friday night and once again on Saturday night (infrequent user); and (3) a person uses a drugmore » on Friday night, uses a drug twice on Saturday night, and once again on Sunday (frequent user).« less
  • This document describes studies conducted at the Milan Army Ammunition Plant (MAAP) to improve the design, operation, and cost of gravel-based anaerobic cells when phytoremediating explosives-contaminated groundwater. To conduct this study, small-scale anaerobic test cells were used to determine: (1) If the hydraulic retention time of a large demonstration-scale anaerobic cell at MAAP could be reduced, and (2) if other carbon sources could be used as an anaerobic feedstock. The study results indicated that: (1) The existing anaerobic cell`s 7.5-day retention time should not be reduced since residual explosive by-products were present in the effluent of treatments with a 3.5-daymore » retention time. (2) Daily application of a relatively soluble substrate, such as molasses syrup, will provide better explosives removal than periodic application of less soluble substrates like milk replacement starter and sewage sludge. (3) Molasses syrup could be, and should be, used as a substitute for milk replacement power. The recommendation to use molasses syrup was based on: (1) The lower cost of molasses syrup as compared to milk replacement starter, (2) molasses syrup`s higher solubility (which makes it easier to apply), and (3) molasses syrup`s ability to provide enhanced explosives removal.« less
  • Ellipticine and 3,5,6,8-tetramethyl-N-methyl phenanthrolinium (TMP) form complexes with the dinucleoside monophosphate, 5-iodocytidylyl(3'-5')guanosine (iodoCpG). These crystals are isomorphous: ellipticine-iodoCpG crystals are monoclinic, space group P2/sub 1/, with a = 13.88 A, b = 19.11 A, c = 21.42 A, ..beta.. = 105.4; TMP-iodoCpG crystals are monoclinic, space group P2/sub 1/, with a = 13.99 A, b = 19.12 A, c = 21.31 A, ..beta.. = 104.9. Both structures have been solved to atomic resolution by Patterson and Fourier methods, and refined by full matrix least squares. The asymmetric unit in the ellipticine-iodoCpG structure contains two ellipticine molecules, two iodoCpG molecules, 16more » water molecules and 2 methanol molecules, a total of 140 atoms, whereas, in the tetramethyl-N-methyl phenanthrolinium-iodoCpG complex, the asymmetric unit contains two TMP molecules, two iodoCpG molecules, 17 water molecules and 2 methanol molecules, a total of 141 atoms. In both structures, the two iodoCpG molecules are hydrogen bonded together by guanine-cytosine Watson--Crick base-pairing. Adjacent base-pairs within this paired iodoCpG structure are separated by about 6.7 A; this separation results from intercalative binding by one ellipticine (of TMP) molecule and stacking by the other ellipticine (or TMP) molecule above or below the base-pairs. Base-pairs within the paired nucleotide units are related by a twist of 10 to 12/sup 0/. The stereochemistry observed in these model drug-nucleic acid intercalative complexes is almost identical to that observed in the ethidium-iodoUpA and iodoCpG complexesdetermined previously. This stereochemistry is also very similar to that observed in the 9-amino-acridine-iodoCpG and acridine orange-iodoCpG complexes.« less
  • The Times Beach National Priorities List site is situated on the banks of the Meramec River in St. Louis County, about 30 miles southwest of St. Louis, Missouri. The roads within the City of Times Beach have been contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). After the 1982 flood, the City of Times Beach was evacuated and access has been restricted to only authorized personnel. Potential exposure pathways that could result from the site include ingestion of contaminated soil and fish or game animals that have bioconcentrated TCDD, dermal absorption upon contact with tainted soil, and inhalation of TCDD-entrained fugitive dusts. Flooding ofmore » Times Beach in 1982, 1983, and 1985 may have resulted in the migration of some TCDD off-site into the Meramec River. The levels of TCDD at the site are of concern and warrant continued site-access control, prevention of sediment runoff, and eventual removal of the TCDD.« less
  • Environmental and breathing-zone samples were analyzed for 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and total dust during cleanup of flood debris at Times Beach, Missouri in 1983. The evaluation was requested by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources to monitor and assess the contractor's employee personal-protective program while cleaning up flood debris potentially contaminated with TCDD. Work practices were observed. No TCDDD was detected. Total dust concentrations ranged up to 6.98 mg/m/sup 3/. The OSHA standard for total dust is 15mg/m3. A number of major deficiencies in the contractor's health and safety program were observed. Respirators were used without being fitmore » tested. No physical barriers between contaminated and non-contaminated areas were provided. Wastewater from decontamination trenches going off site was allowed to accumulate on the surface and seep into the ground. All individuals reporting to the staging area for work drove through the contaminated area. The author concludes that workers at the site were at no additional health risk due to dioxin or total dust exposures. Recommendations include testing respirators for proper fit, providing training on respirator maintenance, and properly arranging decontamination areas, so that workers progressed to cleaner sites as they were being decontaminated.« less