skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Arguments for a "US Kamioka": SNOLab and its Implications for North American Underground Science Planning

Abstract

We argue for a cost-effective, long-term North American underground science strategy based on partnership with Canada and initial construction of a modest U.S. Stage I laboratory designed to complement SNOLab. We show, by reviewing the requirements of detectors now in the R&D phase, that SNOLab and a properly designed U.S. Stage I facility would be capable of meeting the needs of North America’s next wave of underground experiments. One opportunity for creating such a laboratory is the Pioneer tunnel in Washington State, a site that could be developed to provide dedicated, clean, horizontal access. This unused tunnel, part of the deepest (1040 m) tunnel system in the U.S., would allow the U.S. to establish, at low risk and modest cost, a laboratory at a depth (2.12 km.w.e., or kilometers of water equivalent) quite similar to that of the Japanese laboratory Kamioka (2.04 km.w.e.). The site’s infrastructure includes highway and rail access to the portal, a gravity drainage system, redundant power, proximity to a major metropolitan area, and a system of cross cuts connecting to the parallel Great Cascade tunnel and its ventilation system. We describe studies of cosmic ray attenuation important to properly locating such a laboratory, and describe themore » tunnel improvements that would be required to produce an optimal Stage I facility. This strategy would allow the U.S. to add new capabilities in response to the needs of future experiments, building on the experience gained in Stage I. We discuss possibilities for Stage II (3.62 km.w.e.) and Stage III (5.00 km.w.e.) developments at the Pioneer tunnel, should future North American needs for deep space exceed those available at SNOLab. This staging could be planned to avoid duplication of SNOLab’s capabilities while minimizing construction and operations costs. We describe the existing geotechnical record important to future stages, including past tunneling histories, borehole studies and analyses, and recent examinations of the Pioneer tunnel. We also describe the significant broader impacts of this project in improving the efficiency, safety, and security of one of the nation’s key transportation corridors.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
915299
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-49714
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 570(3):414-436
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Haxton, W. C., Philpott, Kregg A., Holtz, Robert, Long, Philip E., and Wilkerson, J. Arguments for a "US Kamioka": SNOLab and its Implications for North American Underground Science Planning. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2006.10.184.
Haxton, W. C., Philpott, Kregg A., Holtz, Robert, Long, Philip E., & Wilkerson, J. Arguments for a "US Kamioka": SNOLab and its Implications for North American Underground Science Planning. United States. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2006.10.184.
Haxton, W. C., Philpott, Kregg A., Holtz, Robert, Long, Philip E., and Wilkerson, J. Sun . "Arguments for a "US Kamioka": SNOLab and its Implications for North American Underground Science Planning". United States. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2006.10.184.
@article{osti_915299,
title = {Arguments for a "US Kamioka": SNOLab and its Implications for North American Underground Science Planning},
author = {Haxton, W. C. and Philpott, Kregg A. and Holtz, Robert and Long, Philip E. and Wilkerson, J.},
abstractNote = {We argue for a cost-effective, long-term North American underground science strategy based on partnership with Canada and initial construction of a modest U.S. Stage I laboratory designed to complement SNOLab. We show, by reviewing the requirements of detectors now in the R&D phase, that SNOLab and a properly designed U.S. Stage I facility would be capable of meeting the needs of North America’s next wave of underground experiments. One opportunity for creating such a laboratory is the Pioneer tunnel in Washington State, a site that could be developed to provide dedicated, clean, horizontal access. This unused tunnel, part of the deepest (1040 m) tunnel system in the U.S., would allow the U.S. to establish, at low risk and modest cost, a laboratory at a depth (2.12 km.w.e., or kilometers of water equivalent) quite similar to that of the Japanese laboratory Kamioka (2.04 km.w.e.). The site’s infrastructure includes highway and rail access to the portal, a gravity drainage system, redundant power, proximity to a major metropolitan area, and a system of cross cuts connecting to the parallel Great Cascade tunnel and its ventilation system. We describe studies of cosmic ray attenuation important to properly locating such a laboratory, and describe the tunnel improvements that would be required to produce an optimal Stage I facility. This strategy would allow the U.S. to add new capabilities in response to the needs of future experiments, building on the experience gained in Stage I. We discuss possibilities for Stage II (3.62 km.w.e.) and Stage III (5.00 km.w.e.) developments at the Pioneer tunnel, should future North American needs for deep space exceed those available at SNOLab. This staging could be planned to avoid duplication of SNOLab’s capabilities while minimizing construction and operations costs. We describe the existing geotechnical record important to future stages, including past tunneling histories, borehole studies and analyses, and recent examinations of the Pioneer tunnel. We also describe the significant broader impacts of this project in improving the efficiency, safety, and security of one of the nation’s key transportation corridors.},
doi = {10.1016/j.nima.2006.10.184},
journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 570(3):414-436},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 21 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Sun Jan 21 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • SNOLAB, an international facility for underground science, is presently under construction at a depth of 6000 meters of water equivalent (m.w.e.) at Inco's Creighton mine near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Building on the success of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment, the creation of SNOLAB will provide the deep-site infrastructure required of next generation particle-astrophysics experiments in pursuit of low-energy solar neutrinos, neutrinoless double beta decay, and cosmological dark matter. Following an enthusiastic response from the scientific community to a call for Letters of Interest (LOI's) in staging experiments at SNOLAB, an initial evaluation process is now complete and an exercisemore » is underway to define an initial suite of experiments and the longer term scientific program for this new facility.« less
  • SNOLAB, an international facility for underground science, is presently under construction at a depth of 6000 meters of water equivalent (m.w.e.) at Inco's Creighton mine near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Building on the success of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, the creation of SNOLAB will provide the deep-site infrastructure required of next generation particle-astrophysics experiments in pursuit of low-energy solar neutrinos, neutrinoless double beta decay, and cosmological dark matter. Following an enthusiastic response from the scientific community to a call for Letters of Interest (LOI's) in staging experiments at SNOLAB, an initial set of recommendations have been developed to guide the scientificmore » program at this new facility.« less
  • It is shown that the neutrino events associated with SN1987A are characterized by the first energetic (E/sub ..nu../--25 MeV) electron-capture ..nu../sub e/ pulse with quite a high source neutrino flux (L/sub ..nu..//sub ,//sub e/approx. =(1--2) x 10/sup 53/ erg), and by the subsequent thermal-pair neutrinos with a modest average energy approx. =7 MeV and also with a reasonable source neutrino flux L/sub ..nu../approx. =3 x 10/sup 53/ erg. Some significant constraints are also derived on particle physics.
  • The Unified North American Soil Map (UNASM) was developed to provide more accurate regional soil information for terrestrial biosphere modeling. The UNASM combines information from state-of-the-art U.S. STATSGO2 and Soil Landscape of Canada (SLCs) databases. The area not covered by these datasets is filled with the Harmonized World Soil Database version 1.1 (HWSD1.1). The UNASM contains maximum soil depth derived from the data source as well as seven soil attributes (including sand, silt, and clay content, gravel content, organic carbon content, pH, and bulk density) for the top soil layer (0-30 cm) and the sub soil layer (30-100 cm) respectively,more » of the spatial resolution of 0.25 degrees in latitude and longitude. There are pronounced differences in the spatial distributions of soil properties and soil organic carbon between UNASM and HWSD, but the UNASM overall provides more detailed and higher-quality information particularly in Alaska and central Canada. To provide more accurate and up-to-date estimate of soil organic carbon stock in North America, we incorporated Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database (NCSCD) into the UNASM. The estimate of total soil organic carbon mass in the upper 100 cm soil profile based on the improved UNASM is 347.70 Pg, of which 24.7% is under trees, 14.2% is under shrubs, and 1.3% is under grasses and 3.8% under crops. This UNASM data will provide a resource for use in land surface and terrestrial biogeochemistry modeling both for input of soil characteristics and for benchmarking model output.« less
  • This talk reviews the major underground physics facilities in North America as of 2010. The Sanford Underground Laboratory and proposed DUSEL are reviewed in a separate talk.