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Title: Surface Treatment to Improve Corrosion Resistance in Lead-Alloy Coolants

Abstract

One of the six proposed advanced reactor designs of the Generation IV Initiative, the Leadcooled Fast Reactor (LFR) possesses many characteristics that make it a desirable candidate for future nuclear energy production and responsible actinide management. These characteristics include favorable heat transfer, fluid dynamics, and neutronic performance compared to other candidate coolants. However, the use of a heavy liquid metal coolant presents a challenge for reactor designers in regards to reliable structural and fuel cladding materials in both a highly corrosive high temperature liquid metal and an intense radiation fieldi. Flow corrosion studies at the University of Wisconsin have examined the corrosion performance of candidate materials for application in the LFR concept as well as the viability of various surface treatments to improve the materials’ compatibility. To date this research has included several focus areas, which include the formulation of an understanding of corrosion mechanisms and the examination of the effects of chemical and mechanical surface modifications on the materials’ performance in liquid lead-bismuth by experimental testing in Los Alamos National Laboratory’s DELTA Loop, as well as comparison of experimental findings to numerical and physical models for long term corrosion prediction. This report will first review the literature and introducemore » the experiments and data that will be used to benchmark theoretical calculations. The experimental results will be followed by a brief review of the underlying theory and methodology for the physical and theoretical models. Finally, the results of theoretical calculations as well as experimentally obtained benchmarks and comparisons to the literature are presented.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
University of Wisconsin
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE - Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (NE)
OSTI Identifier:
914530
Report Number(s):
DOEID14708
TRN: US0802833
DOE Contract Number:
FG07-04ID14600
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; COOLANTS; CORROSION RESISTANCE; LIQUID METAL COOLED REACTORS; PERFORMANCE; SURFACE TREATMENTS; LEAD ALLOYS; BISMUTH ALLOYS; MATERIALS TESTING; Corrosion, lead-alloys

Citation Formats

Todd R. Allen, Kumar Sridharan, McLean T. Machut, and Lizhen Tan. Surface Treatment to Improve Corrosion Resistance in Lead-Alloy Coolants. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.2172/914530.
Todd R. Allen, Kumar Sridharan, McLean T. Machut, & Lizhen Tan. Surface Treatment to Improve Corrosion Resistance in Lead-Alloy Coolants. United States. doi:10.2172/914530.
Todd R. Allen, Kumar Sridharan, McLean T. Machut, and Lizhen Tan. Wed . "Surface Treatment to Improve Corrosion Resistance in Lead-Alloy Coolants". United States. doi:10.2172/914530. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/914530.
@article{osti_914530,
title = {Surface Treatment to Improve Corrosion Resistance in Lead-Alloy Coolants},
author = {Todd R. Allen and Kumar Sridharan and McLean T. Machut and Lizhen Tan},
abstractNote = {One of the six proposed advanced reactor designs of the Generation IV Initiative, the Leadcooled Fast Reactor (LFR) possesses many characteristics that make it a desirable candidate for future nuclear energy production and responsible actinide management. These characteristics include favorable heat transfer, fluid dynamics, and neutronic performance compared to other candidate coolants. However, the use of a heavy liquid metal coolant presents a challenge for reactor designers in regards to reliable structural and fuel cladding materials in both a highly corrosive high temperature liquid metal and an intense radiation fieldi. Flow corrosion studies at the University of Wisconsin have examined the corrosion performance of candidate materials for application in the LFR concept as well as the viability of various surface treatments to improve the materials’ compatibility. To date this research has included several focus areas, which include the formulation of an understanding of corrosion mechanisms and the examination of the effects of chemical and mechanical surface modifications on the materials’ performance in liquid lead-bismuth by experimental testing in Los Alamos National Laboratory’s DELTA Loop, as well as comparison of experimental findings to numerical and physical models for long term corrosion prediction. This report will first review the literature and introduce the experiments and data that will be used to benchmark theoretical calculations. The experimental results will be followed by a brief review of the underlying theory and methodology for the physical and theoretical models. Finally, the results of theoretical calculations as well as experimentally obtained benchmarks and comparisons to the literature are presented.},
doi = {10.2172/914530},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Aug 29 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Wed Aug 29 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}

Technical Report:

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  • Several aspects of the corrosion performance of thermally treated and mill-annealed Inconel alloy 600 steam generator tubing were evaluated. Thermally treated tubing had caustic stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance superior to that of the mill-annealed product over a range of sodium hydroxide concentrations (10 to 50 weight percent), test temperatures (316/sup 0/C to 343/sup 0/C (600/sup 0/F to 650/sup 0/F)), and stress levels. There was a comparable differentiation when specimens were held in the active-passive potential range and in slow strain rate tests in caustic. Corrosion degradation was minimal in both material conditions in high-temperature (332/sup 0/C (630/sup 0/F)) aqueousmore » chloride solutions. SCC was also absent in both material conditions in high-temperature (332/sup 0/C (630/sup 0/F)) aqueous neutral and basic sulfate solutions. However, thermally treated tubing had superior SCC resistance in acid sulfate environments. SCC was present in highly stressed mill-annealed Inconel alloy 600 U-bends exposed to high temperature (360/sup 0/C (680/sup 0/F)) pure water. The SCC initiation time was shorter when the autoclave operated with a hydrogen overpressure.« less
  • The influence of Ti and Zr additions on the heterogeneity texture of Al-- Fe-- Ni alloys and the resultant effect on their corrosion resistance is briefly described. The results are given of corrosion tests on these alloys after prolonged heat treatment. Without additions, the eutectic structure of the basis alloy is subject to a coalescence, which results in a deterioration of corrosion resistance. This effect applies equally to the as-cast and to the wrought conditions. The addition of Ti or Zr retards this deterioration very considerably, both for the as-cast and wrought alloys. (auth)
  • Results of a study concerning the heat treatment, tensile properties, and aqueous corrosion of Zr-2 at.% Nb-2 at.% Sn alloy are presented. (J.R.D.)
  • Electropolishing and applied cerium surface treatments to enhance the crevice corrosion resistance of high performance marine alloys used for critical seawater applications have been investigated. Because of its known susceptibility to crevice corrosion under certain adverse geometrical conditions, Ni-base alloy UNS N06625 was selected as the test material. Crevice corrosion tests were performed in natural and chlorinated seawater over a wide range of ambient temperatures for up to 180 days. Testing comprised the use of two different crevice conditions which previously contributed to crevice corrosion of the test alloys in the as-produced condition. Flowing seawater tests results were complemented bymore » the results of electrochemical tests and SEM/EDS analysis. While both surface treatments markedly improved crevice corrosion resistance, electropolishing provided the greatest improvement in the seawater tests and enhanced performance during anodic potentiodynamic polarization testing in a low pH simulated crevice solution. The role of surface chromium depletion in the as-produced material is discussed.« less
  • ABS>An experiment was performed to determine the effects of nonpickling versus pickling to depths of one and two mils on the corrosion resistance of Zircaloy-2 machined by various methods. No significant difference in corrosion rate between pickled and unpickled Zircaloy-2 was found, provided that properly sharpened and hardened tools were used. (auth)