skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Deciphering the Structural Framework of Glycine Receptor Anchoring by Gephyrin

Abstract

Glycine is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brain stem. Gephyrin is required to achieve a high concentration of glycine receptors (GlyRs) in the postsynaptic membrane, which is crucial for efficient glycinergic signal transduction. The interaction between gephyrin and the GlyR involves the E-domain of gephyrin and a cytoplasmic loop located between transmembrane segments three and four of the GlyR {beta} subunit. Here, we present crystal structures of the gephyrin E-domain with and without the GlyR {beta}-loop at 2.4 and 2.7 Angstroms resolutions, respectively. The GlyR {beta}-loop is bound in a symmetric 'key and lock' fashion to each E-domain monomer in a pocket adjacent to the dimer interface. Structure-guided mutagenesis followed by in vitro binding and in vivo colocalization assays demonstrate that a hydrophobic interaction formed by Phe 330 of gephyrin and Phe 398 and Ile 400 of the GlyR {beta}-loop is crucial for binding.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) National Synchrotron Light Source
Sponsoring Org.:
Doe - Office Of Science
OSTI Identifier:
914309
Report Number(s):
BNL-78877-2007-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0261-4189; EMJODG; TRN: US200809%%166
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-98CH10886
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: EMBO J.; Journal Volume: 25
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; BRAIN; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; DIMERS; FASTENING; GLYCINE; IN VITRO; IN VIVO; MONOMERS; MUTAGENESIS; SPINAL CORD; national synchrotron light source

Citation Formats

Kim,E., Schrader, N., Smolinsky, B., Bedet, C., Vannier, C., Schwartz, G., and Schindelin, H.. Deciphering the Structural Framework of Glycine Receptor Anchoring by Gephyrin. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1038/sj.emboj.7601029.
Kim,E., Schrader, N., Smolinsky, B., Bedet, C., Vannier, C., Schwartz, G., & Schindelin, H.. Deciphering the Structural Framework of Glycine Receptor Anchoring by Gephyrin. United States. doi:10.1038/sj.emboj.7601029.
Kim,E., Schrader, N., Smolinsky, B., Bedet, C., Vannier, C., Schwartz, G., and Schindelin, H.. Sun . "Deciphering the Structural Framework of Glycine Receptor Anchoring by Gephyrin". United States. doi:10.1038/sj.emboj.7601029.
@article{osti_914309,
title = {Deciphering the Structural Framework of Glycine Receptor Anchoring by Gephyrin},
author = {Kim,E. and Schrader, N. and Smolinsky, B. and Bedet, C. and Vannier, C. and Schwartz, G. and Schindelin, H.},
abstractNote = {Glycine is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brain stem. Gephyrin is required to achieve a high concentration of glycine receptors (GlyRs) in the postsynaptic membrane, which is crucial for efficient glycinergic signal transduction. The interaction between gephyrin and the GlyR involves the E-domain of gephyrin and a cytoplasmic loop located between transmembrane segments three and four of the GlyR {beta} subunit. Here, we present crystal structures of the gephyrin E-domain with and without the GlyR {beta}-loop at 2.4 and 2.7 Angstroms resolutions, respectively. The GlyR {beta}-loop is bound in a symmetric 'key and lock' fashion to each E-domain monomer in a pocket adjacent to the dimer interface. Structure-guided mutagenesis followed by in vitro binding and in vivo colocalization assays demonstrate that a hydrophobic interaction formed by Phe 330 of gephyrin and Phe 398 and Ile 400 of the GlyR {beta}-loop is crucial for binding.},
doi = {10.1038/sj.emboj.7601029},
journal = {EMBO J.},
number = ,
volume = 25,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • Highlights: • We studied the response of the GluN1/GluN3A excitatory glycine receptor to activation. • GluN1 and GluN3A subunits interacted within transfected cells. • The GluN1/GluN3A receptor was functionally active. • Glycine or D-serine caused a ∼1 nm height reduction in bilayer-integrated receptors. • This height reduction was abolished by the glycine antagonist DCKA. - Abstract: Unlike GluN2-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, which require both glycine and glutamate for activation, receptors composed of GluN1 and GluN3 subunits are activated by glycine alone. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging to examine the response to activation of the GluN1/GluN3A excitatory glycinemore » receptor. GluN1 and GluN3A subunits were shown to interact intimately within transfected tsA 201 cells. Isolated GluN1/GluN3A receptors integrated into lipid bilayers responded to addition of either glycine or D-serine, but not glutamate, with a ∼1 nm reduction in height of the extracellular domain. The height reduction in response to glycine was abolished by the glycine antagonist 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid. Our results represent the first demonstration of the effect of activation on the conformation of this receptor.« less
  • All ligands of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are synthesized as membrane-anchored precursors. Previous work has suggested that some ligands, such as EGF, must be proteolytically released to be active, whereas others, such as heparin binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) can function while still anchored to the membrane (i.e., juxtacrine signaling). To explore the structural basis for these differences in ligand activity, we engineered a series of membrane-anchored ligands in which the core, receptor-binding domain of EGF was combined with different domains of both EGF and HB-EGF. We found that ligands having the N-terminal extension of EGF could notmore » bind to the EGFR, even when released from the membrane. Ligands lacking an N-terminal extension, but possessing the membrane-anchoring domain of EGF still required proteolytic release for activity, whereas ligands with the membrane anchoring domain of HB-EGF could elicit full biological activity while still membrane anchored. Ligands containing the HB-EGF membrane anchor, but lacking an N-terminal extension, activated EGFR during their transit through the Golgi apparatus . However, cell-mixing experiments and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) studies showed that juxtacrine signaling typically occurred in trans at the cell surface, at points of cell-cell contact. Our data suggest that the membrane-anchoring domain of ligands selectively controls their ability to participate in juxtacrine signaling and thus, only a subclass of EGFR ligands can act in a juxtacrine mode.« less
  • Efficient synthesis of various benzimidazoles and benzothiazoles under mild conditions catalyzed by Cu(II) anchored onto UiO-66–NH{sub 2} metal organic framework is reported. In this manner, first, the aminated UiO-66 was modified with thiophene-2-carbaldehyde and then the prepared Schiff base was reacted with CuCl{sub 2}. The prepared catalyst was characterized by FT-IR, UV–vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N{sub 2} adsorption, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The UiO-66–NH{sub 2}–TC–Cu was applied as a highly efficient catalyst for synthesis of benzimidazole and benzothiazole derivatives by the reaction of aldehydes with 1,2-diaminobenzenemore » or 2-aminothiophenol. The Cu(II)-containing MOF was reused several times without any appreciable loss of its efficiency. - Graphical abstract: Efficient synthesis of benzimidazoles and benzothiazoles catalyzed by Cu(II) anchored onto UiO-66–NH{sub 2} metal organic framework is reported. - Highlights: • A copper Schiff base was immobilized on UiO-66 via postsynthetic modification. • The modified MOFs were fully characterized by a variety of methods. • The catalyst was used for the preparation of benzimidazoles and benzothiazoles. • In comparison of other catalysts, our catalyst was more efficient and forceful.« less
  • Self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) show in high-resolution single-dot spectra a multitude of sharp lines, resembling a barcode, due to various neutral and charged exciton complexes. Here we propose the 'spectral barcoding' method that deciphers structural motifs of dots by using such barcode as input to an artificial-intelligence learning system. Thus, we invert the common practice of deducing spectra from structure by deducing structure from spectra. This approach (i) lays the foundation for building a much needed structure-spectra understanding for large nanostructures and (ii) can guide future design of desired optical features of QDs by controlling during growth only thosemore » structural motifs that decide given optical features.« less
  • We present the first implementation of femtosecond soft X-ray spectroscopy as an ultrafast direct probe of the excited-state valence orbitals in solution-phase molecules. This method is applied to photoinduced spin crossover of [Fe(tren(py)3)]2+, where the ultrafast spinstate conversion of the metal ion, initiated by metal-to-ligand charge-transfer excitation, is directly measured using the intrinsic spin-state selectivity of the soft X-ray L-edge transitions. Our results provide important experimental data concerning the mechanism of ultrafast spin-state conversion and subsequent electronic and structural dynamics, highlighting the potential of this technique to study ultrafast phenomena in the solution phase.