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Title: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Report 2006

Abstract

For the Laboratory and staff, 2006 was a year of outstanding achievements. As our many accomplishments in this annual report illustrate, the Laboratory's focus on important problems that affect our nation's security and our researchers breakthroughs in science and technology have led to major successes. As a national laboratory that is part of the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA), Livermore is a key contributor to the Stockpile Stewardship Program for maintaining the safety, security, and reliability of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile. The program has been highly successful, and our annual report features some of the Laboratory's significant stockpile stewardship accomplishments in 2006. A notable example is a long-term study with Los Alamos National Laboratory, which found that weapon pit performance will not sharply degrade from the aging effects on plutonium. The conclusion was based on a wide range of nonnuclear experiments, detailed simulations, theoretical advances, and thorough analyses of the results of past nuclear tests. The study was a superb scientific effort. The continuing success of stockpile stewardship enabled NNSA in 2006 to lay out Complex 2030, a vision for a transformed nuclear weapons complex that is more responsive, cost efficient, and highly secure. One ofmore » the ways our Laboratory will help lead this transformation is through the design and development of reliable replacement warheads (RRWs). Compared to current designs, these warheads would have enhanced performance margins and security features and would be less costly to manufacture and maintain in a smaller, modernized production complex. In early 2007, NNSA selected Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories-California to develop ''RRW-1'' for the U.S. Navy. Design efforts for the RRW, the plutonium aging work, and many other stockpile stewardship accomplishments rely on computer simulations performed on NNSA's Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program supercomputers at Livermore. ASC Purple and BlueGene/L, the world's fastest computer, together provide nearly a half petaflop (500 trillion operations per second) of computer power for use by the three NNSA national laboratories. Livermore-led teams were awarded the Gordon Bell Prize for Peak Performance in both 2005 and 2006. The winning simulations, run on BlueGene/L, investigated the properties of materials at the length and time scales of atomic interactions. The computing power that makes possible such detailed simulations provides unprecedented opportunities for scientific discovery. Laboratory scientists are meeting the extraordinary challenge of creating experimental capabilities to match the resolution of supercomputer simulations. Working with a wide range of collaborators, we are developing experimental tools that gather better data at the nanometer and subnanosecond scales. Applications range from imaging biomolecules to studying matter at extreme conditions of pressure and temperature. The premier high-energy-density experimental physics facility in the world will be the National Ignition Facility (NIF) when construction is completed in 2009. We are leading the national effort to perform the first fusion ignition experiments using NIF's 192-beam laser and prepare to explore some of the remaining important issues in weapons physics. With scientific colleagues from throughout the nation, we are also designing revolutionary experiments on NIF to advance the fields of astrophysics, planetary physics, and materials science. Mission-directed, multidisciplinary science and technology at Livermore is also focused on reducing the threat posed by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction as well as their acquisition and use by terrorists. The Laboratory helps this important national effort by providing its unique expertise, integration analyses, and operational support to the Department of Homeland Security. For this vital facet of the Laboratory's national security mission, we are developing advanced technologies, such as a pocket-size explosives detector and an airborne persistent surveillance system, both of which earned R&D 100 Awards. Altogether, Livermore won seven R&D 100 Awards in 2006, the most for any organization. Emerging threats to national and global security go beyond defense and homeland security. Livermore pursues major scientific and technical advances to meet the need for a clean environment; clean, abundant energy; better water management; and improved human health. Our annual report highlights the link between human activities and the warming of tropical oceans, as well as techniques for imaging biological molecules and detecting bone cancer in its earliest stages. In addition, we showcase many scientific discoveries: distant planets, the composition of comets, a new superheavy element.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
913553
Report Number(s):
UCRL-TR-211126-06
TRN: US200802%%872
DOE Contract Number:
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUMM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; 42 ENGINEERING; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ASTROPHYSICS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY; NATIONAL SECURITY; NEOPLASMS; NUCLEAR WEAPONS; PHYSICS; PLUTONIUM; SUPERCOMPUTERS; TRANSACTINIDE ELEMENTS; US NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

Citation Formats

Chrzanowski, P, and Walter, K. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Report 2006. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.2172/913553.
Chrzanowski, P, & Walter, K. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Report 2006. United States. doi:10.2172/913553.
Chrzanowski, P, and Walter, K. Thu . "Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Report 2006". United States. doi:10.2172/913553. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/913553.
@article{osti_913553,
title = {Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Report 2006},
author = {Chrzanowski, P and Walter, K},
abstractNote = {For the Laboratory and staff, 2006 was a year of outstanding achievements. As our many accomplishments in this annual report illustrate, the Laboratory's focus on important problems that affect our nation's security and our researchers breakthroughs in science and technology have led to major successes. As a national laboratory that is part of the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA), Livermore is a key contributor to the Stockpile Stewardship Program for maintaining the safety, security, and reliability of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile. The program has been highly successful, and our annual report features some of the Laboratory's significant stockpile stewardship accomplishments in 2006. A notable example is a long-term study with Los Alamos National Laboratory, which found that weapon pit performance will not sharply degrade from the aging effects on plutonium. The conclusion was based on a wide range of nonnuclear experiments, detailed simulations, theoretical advances, and thorough analyses of the results of past nuclear tests. The study was a superb scientific effort. The continuing success of stockpile stewardship enabled NNSA in 2006 to lay out Complex 2030, a vision for a transformed nuclear weapons complex that is more responsive, cost efficient, and highly secure. One of the ways our Laboratory will help lead this transformation is through the design and development of reliable replacement warheads (RRWs). Compared to current designs, these warheads would have enhanced performance margins and security features and would be less costly to manufacture and maintain in a smaller, modernized production complex. In early 2007, NNSA selected Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories-California to develop ''RRW-1'' for the U.S. Navy. Design efforts for the RRW, the plutonium aging work, and many other stockpile stewardship accomplishments rely on computer simulations performed on NNSA's Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program supercomputers at Livermore. ASC Purple and BlueGene/L, the world's fastest computer, together provide nearly a half petaflop (500 trillion operations per second) of computer power for use by the three NNSA national laboratories. Livermore-led teams were awarded the Gordon Bell Prize for Peak Performance in both 2005 and 2006. The winning simulations, run on BlueGene/L, investigated the properties of materials at the length and time scales of atomic interactions. The computing power that makes possible such detailed simulations provides unprecedented opportunities for scientific discovery. Laboratory scientists are meeting the extraordinary challenge of creating experimental capabilities to match the resolution of supercomputer simulations. Working with a wide range of collaborators, we are developing experimental tools that gather better data at the nanometer and subnanosecond scales. Applications range from imaging biomolecules to studying matter at extreme conditions of pressure and temperature. The premier high-energy-density experimental physics facility in the world will be the National Ignition Facility (NIF) when construction is completed in 2009. We are leading the national effort to perform the first fusion ignition experiments using NIF's 192-beam laser and prepare to explore some of the remaining important issues in weapons physics. With scientific colleagues from throughout the nation, we are also designing revolutionary experiments on NIF to advance the fields of astrophysics, planetary physics, and materials science. Mission-directed, multidisciplinary science and technology at Livermore is also focused on reducing the threat posed by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction as well as their acquisition and use by terrorists. The Laboratory helps this important national effort by providing its unique expertise, integration analyses, and operational support to the Department of Homeland Security. For this vital facet of the Laboratory's national security mission, we are developing advanced technologies, such as a pocket-size explosives detector and an airborne persistent surveillance system, both of which earned R&D 100 Awards. Altogether, Livermore won seven R&D 100 Awards in 2006, the most for any organization. Emerging threats to national and global security go beyond defense and homeland security. Livermore pursues major scientific and technical advances to meet the need for a clean environment; clean, abundant energy; better water management; and improved human health. Our annual report highlights the link between human activities and the warming of tropical oceans, as well as techniques for imaging biological molecules and detecting bone cancer in its earliest stages. In addition, we showcase many scientific discoveries: distant planets, the composition of comets, a new superheavy element.},
doi = {10.2172/913553},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu May 24 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Thu May 24 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}

Technical Report:

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  • The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.
  • This report contains rainfall climatology and analyses during the period from 1958 to 2006 for the two sites of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: the Livermore site and Site 300. The measurement sites are described, a regional climatology overview is provided, and the effect of topography on regional precipitation is discussed. Rainfall statistics are presented including monthly normals (30-year means) and medians; percentages of time that rainfall is less than or equal to specified amounts for given months, years, and seasons; and mean, median, and maximum numbers of days of precipitation for specified amounts by month, year, and season. The rainfallmore » pattern is demonstrated to be typical of Mediterranean climates, with most rain falling during the cold season. Nearly 80% of seasonal rainfall occurs during November through March, with the average annual rainfall equaling 13.62 and 10.64 inches at the Livermore site and Site 300, respectively. Precipitation frequency and extreme value analyses for durations ranging from 15 minutes to 24 hours, month, and rainfall season are shown in order to estimate rainfall amounts for return periods of two to 100 years at both sites. This analysis determined 100-year return periods for largest 24-hour rainfalls of 2.49 and 2.22 inches at the Livermore site and Site 300, respectively. Historical analysis of seasonal rainfall data indicates that the wettest rainfall seasons at both sites typically occurred during strong El Ninos.« less
  • The influence of aluminum content and thermomechanical processing steps in developing fine microstructures in ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCS) was examined. It was shown that ultrafine pearlitic structures, containing no proeutectoid carbide networks, can be obtained by the addition of at least 1.5% aluminum. Hot-working (HW) followed by slow cooling from the austenite region (above A/sub cm/) will lead to a carbide-network-free pearlitic structure. Spheroidized structures, with the elimination of any pre-existing carbide networks, can be obtained either by a thermomechanical treatment or by a thermal treatment alone. These are: (1) warm working (WW) involving a divorced-eutectoid transformation with associated deformationmore » (DETWAD), and (2) heat treating involving a divorced-eutectoid transformation (DET), which requires heating to a low austenitizing temperature followed by isothermal transformation just below the A/sub 1/ temperature. This retardation will provide a wide window of time and temperature for processing with a number of possible combinations of DET and DETWAD steps. Results of superplasticity studies on the UHCS-Al alloys reveal that superplastic behavior is enhanced by aluminum additions and by increasing the amount of deformation during DETWAD processing. Preliminary studies on the cold-rolling characteristics of the UHCS-1.6Al alloy reveal that it can be cold-rolled to 50% in the fully pearlitic condition without annealing, and to over 60% in the fully spheroidized condition. A modified Fe-C diagram is proposed for the UHCS-1.6Al. Aluminum is shown to raise the liquidus and solidus temperatures, to increase the solubility of carbon in austenite, to increase the A/sub 1/ temperature, and to introduce a three-phase region of ferrite, austenitic, and carbide.« less
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