skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Isolation and Identification of Nitrogen Species in Jet Fuel and Diesel Fuel

Abstract

Many performance characteristics of liquid fuels--including lubricity, the ability to swell seal materials, storage stability, and thermal stability--are determined, to a large degree, by the trace polar species that the fuel contains. Because the polar fraction comprises such a small portion of the fuel matrix, it is difficult to detect these species without first isolating them from the bulk fuel. This manuscript describes the extension of previous work that established a protocol for the isolation and identification of oxygenates in jet fuels. The current work shows that a liquid-liquid extraction using methanol, followed by an isolation step using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a silica column, can successfully separate polar nitrogen-containing species from the fuel, in addition to separating oxygenates. The analytical protocol further isolates the polar target species using a polar capillary gas chromatography (GC) column and a nontraditional oven heating program. The method is amenable to milliliter quantitites of fuel samples and produces a matrix that can be analyzed directly, using typical GC methods. The method was evaluated using spiked surrogate fuels, as well as actual petroleum-derived jet fuel samples. Furthermore, it is shown that the method also can be extended for use on diesel fuels.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE - Office of Fossil Energy (FE)
OSTI Identifier:
913012
Report Number(s):
DOE/NETL-IR-2007-085
Journal ID: ISSN 0887-0624; TRN: US200802%%513
DOE Contract Number:
None cited
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Energy and Fuels; Journal Volume: 21; Journal Issue: 3
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; DIESEL FUELS; GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY; HEATING; HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY; METHANOL; NITROGEN; OVENS; PERFORMANCE; SILICA; SOLVENT EXTRACTION; STABILITY; STORAGE; TARGETS

Citation Formats

Link, D.D., Baltrus, J.P., and Zandhuis, P.H. Isolation and Identification of Nitrogen Species in Jet Fuel and Diesel Fuel. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1021/ef060451q.
Link, D.D., Baltrus, J.P., & Zandhuis, P.H. Isolation and Identification of Nitrogen Species in Jet Fuel and Diesel Fuel. United States. doi:10.1021/ef060451q.
Link, D.D., Baltrus, J.P., and Zandhuis, P.H. Tue . "Isolation and Identification of Nitrogen Species in Jet Fuel and Diesel Fuel". United States. doi:10.1021/ef060451q.
@article{osti_913012,
title = {Isolation and Identification of Nitrogen Species in Jet Fuel and Diesel Fuel},
author = {Link, D.D. and Baltrus, J.P. and Zandhuis, P.H.},
abstractNote = {Many performance characteristics of liquid fuels--including lubricity, the ability to swell seal materials, storage stability, and thermal stability--are determined, to a large degree, by the trace polar species that the fuel contains. Because the polar fraction comprises such a small portion of the fuel matrix, it is difficult to detect these species without first isolating them from the bulk fuel. This manuscript describes the extension of previous work that established a protocol for the isolation and identification of oxygenates in jet fuels. The current work shows that a liquid-liquid extraction using methanol, followed by an isolation step using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a silica column, can successfully separate polar nitrogen-containing species from the fuel, in addition to separating oxygenates. The analytical protocol further isolates the polar target species using a polar capillary gas chromatography (GC) column and a nontraditional oven heating program. The method is amenable to milliliter quantitites of fuel samples and produces a matrix that can be analyzed directly, using typical GC methods. The method was evaluated using spiked surrogate fuels, as well as actual petroleum-derived jet fuel samples. Furthermore, it is shown that the method also can be extended for use on diesel fuels.},
doi = {10.1021/ef060451q},
journal = {Energy and Fuels},
number = 3,
volume = 21,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Tue May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • Many performance characteristics of liquid fuels-including lubricity, the ability to swell seal materials, storage stability, and thermal stability-are determined, to a large degree, by the trace polar species that the fuel contains. Because the polar fraction comprises such a small portion of the fuel matrix, it is difficult to detect these species without first isolating them from the bulk fuel. This manuscript describes the extension of previous work that established a protocol for the isolation and identification of oxygenates in jet fuels. The current work shows that a liquid-liquid extraction using methanol, followed by an isolation step using high-performance liquidmore » chromatography (HPLC) with a silica column, can successfully separate polar nitrogen-containing species from the fuel, in addition to separating oxygenates. The analytical protocol further isolates the polar target species using a polar capillary gas chromatography (GC) column and a nontraditional oven heating program. The method is amenable to milliliter quantitites of fuel samples and produces a matrix that can be analyzed directly, using typical GC methods. The method was evaluated using spiked surrogate fuels, as well as actual petroleum-derived jet fuel samples. Furthermore, it is shown that the method also can be extended for use on diesel fuels.« less
  • Following investigation of an outbreak of legionellosis in South Australia, numerous Legionella-like organisms were isolated from water samples. Because of the limited number of commercially available direct fluorescent-antibody reagents and the cross-reactions found with some reagents, non-pneumophila legionellae proved to be difficult to identify and these isolates were stored at -70{degree}C for later study. Latex agglutination reagents for Legionella peneumpphila and Legionella anisa developed by the Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science, Adelaide, Australia, were found to be useful as rapid screening aids. Autofluorescence was useful for placing isolates into broad groups. Cellular fatty acid analysis, ubiquinone analysis, and DNAmore » hybridization techniques were necessary to provide definitive identification. The species which were isolated most frequently were L. pneumophila, followed by L. anisa, Legionella jamestowniensis, Legionella quinlivanii, Legionella rubrilucens, Legionella spiritensis, and a single isolate each of Legionella erythra, Legionella jordanis, Legionella birminghamensis, and Legionella cincinnatiensis. In addition, 10 isolates were found by DNA hybridization studies to be unrelated to any of the 26 currently known species, representing what the authors believe to be 6 possible new species.« less
  • Diesel exhaust particulates contain certain chemicals that are directly mutagenic in the Ames test. The isolation, identification, and synthesis of one direct-acting mutagen, pyrene-3,4-dicarboxylic acid anhydride, from a sample of diesel exhaust particulates is described. Although the compound is only weakly mutagenic in the Ames test, it is speculated that it is but one of a class of mutagenic dicarboxylic acid anhydrides of various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel exhausts.
  • The rotational and vibrational Raman spectra of H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, and HD trapped in solid nitrogen have been recorded at 9 K. After deposition, monomeric species are identified by either one Q(0) (HD) or two Q(J), J = 0 and 1, (H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}) lines. The corresponding S{sub 0}(J) rotational transitions display a doublet pattern with a splitting ranging from 22 to 26 cm{sup {minus}1}. After annealing at about 25 K, totally different spectra are observed. In the Q(J) region the new features behave as those obtained in the same conditions in rare gas matrices while the S{submore » 0}(J) transitions are identified as single but broad lines with frequencies close to that of the free molecules and line widths strongly decreasing upon increase in temperature. These results suggest that hydrogen, because of its mobility and its low solubility in N{sub 2}, migrates in annealing conditions and forms microcrystals with spectral properties comparable to those observed for the crystalline phase.« less
  • The resources of jet fuels can be expanded by raising the end point. This paper reports on an investigation of the effect of raising the end initial crystallization temperature of jet fuel and the increased jet fuel yield on the yields of naphtha cuts, standard diesel fuel, and total light products from Usa crude. To maximize the yield of total light products from Usa crude it is best to produce jet fuel with the lowest possible initial crystallization temperature.