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Title: Free Radical Chemistry of Disinfection Byproducts 1: Kinetics of Hydrated Electron and Hydroxyl Radical Reactions with Halonitromethanes in Water

Abstract

Halonitromethanes are disinfection-byproducts formed during ozonation and chlorine/chloramine treatment of waters that contain bromide ion and natural organic matter. In this study, the chemical kinetics of the free-radical-induced degradations of a series of halonitromethanes were determined. Absolute rate constants for hydroxyl radical, OH, and hydrated electron, eaq-, reaction with both chlorinated and brominated halonitromethanes were measured using the techniques of electron pulse radiolysis and transient absorption spectroscopy. The bimolecular rate constants obtained, k (M-1 s-1), for eaq-/OH, respectively, were the following: chloronitromethane (3.01 ± 0.40) × 1010/(1.94 ± 0.32) × 108; dichloronitromethane (3.21 ± 0.17) × 1010/(5.12 ± 0.77) × 108; bromonitromethane (3.13 ± 0.06) × 1010/(8.36 ± 0.57) × 107; dibromonitromethane (3.07 ± 0.40) × 1010/(4.75 ± 0.98) × 108; tribromonitromethane (2.29 ± 0.39) × 1010/(3.25 ± 0.67) × 108; bromochloronitromethane (2.93 ± 0.47) × 1010/(4.2 ± 1.1) × 108; bromodichloronitromethane (2.68 ± 0.13) × 1010/(1.02 ± 0.15) × 108; and dibromochloronitromethane (2.95 ± 0.43) × 1010 / (1.80 ± 0.31) × 108 at room temperature and pH ~7. Comparison data were also obtained for hydroxyl radical reaction with bromoform (1.50 ± 0.05) × 108, bromodichloromethane (7.11 ± 0.26) × 107, and chlorodibromomethane (8.31 ± 0.25) × 107 M-1more » s-1, respectively. These rate constants are compared to recently obtained data for trichloronitromethane and bromonitromethane, as well as to other established literature data for analogous compounds.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Laboratory (INL)
Sponsoring Org.:
DOE - NE
OSTI Identifier:
912431
Report Number(s):
INL/JOU-05-00865
TRN: US0800385
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC07-99ID-13727
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Physcial Chemistry A; Journal Volume: 110; Journal Issue: 6
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 - INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY; BROMIDES; BROMOFORM; CHEMISTRY; ELECTRONS; HYDRATION; HYDROXYL RADICALS; KINETICS; ORGANIC MATTER; RADICALS; RADIOLYSIS; SOLVATED ELECTRONS; STERILIZATION; TRANSIENTS; WATER; disinfection-byproducts; halonitromethanes

Citation Formats

B. J. Mincher, R. V. Fox, S. P. Mezyk, T. Helgeson, S. K. Cole, W. J. Cooper, and P. R. Gardinali. Free Radical Chemistry of Disinfection Byproducts 1: Kinetics of Hydrated Electron and Hydroxyl Radical Reactions with Halonitromethanes in Water. United States: N. p., 2006. Web.
B. J. Mincher, R. V. Fox, S. P. Mezyk, T. Helgeson, S. K. Cole, W. J. Cooper, & P. R. Gardinali. Free Radical Chemistry of Disinfection Byproducts 1: Kinetics of Hydrated Electron and Hydroxyl Radical Reactions with Halonitromethanes in Water. United States.
B. J. Mincher, R. V. Fox, S. P. Mezyk, T. Helgeson, S. K. Cole, W. J. Cooper, and P. R. Gardinali. Sun . "Free Radical Chemistry of Disinfection Byproducts 1: Kinetics of Hydrated Electron and Hydroxyl Radical Reactions with Halonitromethanes in Water". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_912431,
title = {Free Radical Chemistry of Disinfection Byproducts 1: Kinetics of Hydrated Electron and Hydroxyl Radical Reactions with Halonitromethanes in Water},
author = {B. J. Mincher and R. V. Fox and S. P. Mezyk and T. Helgeson and S. K. Cole and W. J. Cooper and P. R. Gardinali},
abstractNote = {Halonitromethanes are disinfection-byproducts formed during ozonation and chlorine/chloramine treatment of waters that contain bromide ion and natural organic matter. In this study, the chemical kinetics of the free-radical-induced degradations of a series of halonitromethanes were determined. Absolute rate constants for hydroxyl radical, OH, and hydrated electron, eaq-, reaction with both chlorinated and brominated halonitromethanes were measured using the techniques of electron pulse radiolysis and transient absorption spectroscopy. The bimolecular rate constants obtained, k (M-1 s-1), for eaq-/OH, respectively, were the following: chloronitromethane (3.01 ± 0.40) × 1010/(1.94 ± 0.32) × 108; dichloronitromethane (3.21 ± 0.17) × 1010/(5.12 ± 0.77) × 108; bromonitromethane (3.13 ± 0.06) × 1010/(8.36 ± 0.57) × 107; dibromonitromethane (3.07 ± 0.40) × 1010/(4.75 ± 0.98) × 108; tribromonitromethane (2.29 ± 0.39) × 1010/(3.25 ± 0.67) × 108; bromochloronitromethane (2.93 ± 0.47) × 1010/(4.2 ± 1.1) × 108; bromodichloronitromethane (2.68 ± 0.13) × 1010/(1.02 ± 0.15) × 108; and dibromochloronitromethane (2.95 ± 0.43) × 1010 / (1.80 ± 0.31) × 108 at room temperature and pH ~7. Comparison data were also obtained for hydroxyl radical reaction with bromoform (1.50 ± 0.05) × 108, bromodichloromethane (7.11 ± 0.26) × 107, and chlorodibromomethane (8.31 ± 0.25) × 107 M-1 s-1, respectively. These rate constants are compared to recently obtained data for trichloronitromethane and bromonitromethane, as well as to other established literature data for analogous compounds.},
doi = {},
journal = {Journal of Physcial Chemistry A},
number = 6,
volume = 110,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • Absolute rate constants for the free-radical-induced degradation of trichloronitromethane (TCNM, chloropicrin) were determined using electron pulse radiolysis and transient absorption spectroscopy. Rate constants for hydroxyl radical, OH, and hydrated electron, eaq-, reactions were (4.97 ± 0.28) × 107 M-1 s-1 and (2.13 ± 0.03) × 1010 M-1 s-1, respectively. It appears that the OH adds to the nitro-group, while the eaq- reacts via dissociative electron attachment to give two carbon centered radicals. The mechanisms of these free radical reactions with TCNM were investigated, using 60Co gamma irradiation at various absorbed doses, measuring the disappearance of TCNM and the appearance ofmore » the product nitrate and chloride ions. The rate constants and mechanistic data were combined in a kinetic computer model that was used to describe the major free radical pathways for the destruction of TCNM in solution. These data are applicable to other advanced oxidation/reduction processes.« less
  • Halonitromethanes (HNMs) are byproducts formed through ozonation and chlorine/ chloramine disinfection processes in drinking waters that contain dissolved organic matter and bromide ions. These species occur at low concentration, but have been determined to have high cytotoxicity and mutagenicity and therefore may represent a human health hazard. In this study, we have investigated the chemistry involved in the mineralization of HNMs to non-hazardous inorganic products through the application of advanced oxidation and reduction processes. We have combined measured absolute reaction rate constants for the reactions of chloronitromethane, bromonitromethane and dichloronitromethane with the hydroxyl radical and the hydrated electron with amore » kinetic computer model in an attempt to elucidate the reaction pathways of these HNMs. The results are compared to measurements of stable products resulting from steady-state 60Co y-irradiations of the same compounds. The model predicted the decomposition of the parent compounds and ingrowth of chloride and bromide ions with excellent accuracy, but the prediction of the total nitrate ion concentration was slightly in error, reflecting the complexity of nitrogen oxide species reactions in irradiated solution.« less
  • The halonitromethanes (HNMs) are byproducts of the ozonation and chlorine/chloramine treatment of drinking waters. Although typically occurring at low concentrations HNMs have high cytotoxicity and mutagenicity, and may therefore represent a significant human health hazard. In this study, we have investigated the radical based mineralization of fully-halogenated HNMs in water using the congeners bromodichloronitromethane and chlorodibromonitromethane. We have combined absolute reaction rate constants for their reactions with the hydroxyl radical and the hydrated electron as measured by electron pulse radiolysis and analytical measurements of stable product concentrations obtained by 60Co steady-state radiolysis with a kinetic computer model that includes watermore » radiolysis reactions and halide/nitrogen oxide radical chemistry to fully elucidate the reaction pathways of these HNMs. These results are compared to our previous similar study of the fully chlorinated HNM chloropicrin. The full optimized computer model, suitable for predicting the behavior of this class of compounds in irradiated drinking water is provided.« less